INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY PSYCH 201
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jena Schumm on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 201 at Clemson University taught by Richard Tyrrell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/214234/psych-201-clemson-university in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Chapter 6 October 14 2011 Sensation receiving and representing information Perception organizing and interpreting information Specialized parts of the brain decode different aspects of the image 0 EX Color motion form depth Sensory Systems Vision Audition hearing Olfaction smell Taste Touch Pain Vestibular head positionacceleration located in inner ear Kinesthesia body sense heat THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM visible light is the only part of the EM spectrum that humans can recognize Light travels in waves just like sound Wavelength perceived color vision and perceived path hearing 0 Short Wavelength high frequency bluish colors high sounds 0 Long Wavelength low frequency reddish colors low sounds Amplitudeperceived brightness vision and perceived loudness hearing 0 GreatHigh Amplitude bright colors loud sounds 0 Small Amplitude dull sounds quiet sounds Different species are sensitive to different wavelengths 0 Ex A human sees a yellow ower while a bee sees it as neon blue due to their sensitivity to UV light ANATOMY OF THE EYE pg 237 Transduction converting energy from one form to another 0 Ex Microphones speakers photoreceptors rods amp cones o Transduction happens in the eye but SEEING happens in the brain Humans have both rods and cones however some species only have one or the other 0 Rods 120 million per eye DON T distinguish colors BAD for details GOOD for dim light located in the periphery o Cones 6 million per eye DO distinguish colors GOOD for details BAD for dim light located in or near the fovea Due to our fovea we see details in only a tiny area so we need to be able to move our eyes Three pairs of muscles attached to each eye updown pair leftright pair rotatingtwisting pair These are always active even when sleeping REM most common voluntary movement that we make Species without foveas done need eye movements Eye placement and behavior are related 0 Predators have forward facing eyes cat large blind spot in the binocular 80 degrees 0 Prey have more elevated eyes that are able to swivel rabbit small blind spot in the binocular 9 degrees Perception is subjective 0 We often perceive what we expect to perceive 0 Knowledge affects perception 0 We can learn about perception by studying how it goes wrong 0 Illusion misperception Ambiguous Figure once both images are seen it is impossible to prevent of picture from quotpoppingquot into vision but you only see one at a time Goose vs Hawk Vase vs Face examples CONTEXT IS IMPORTANT Shadows help us perceive forms Perception assumes that light comes from above To perceive forms it is first necessary to distinguish an object from its background Human Factors Psychology Goals Study the capabilities and limitations of human operators so that technology can be designed to be safe productive and satisfying 0 Capitalize our capabilities o Compensate for our limitations 40000 traffic fatalities per year in the US o 1 threat to young Americans 0 Most traffic fatalities happen at night I Fatigue I Alcohol I Darkness Gerald Schneider anatomists knew that in mammals visual info travels sto two different brain areas 0 Visual Cortex the main connection 0 Superior Colliculus midbrain unknown function Schneider s Results Found two different kinds of blindness 0 Without a visual cortex hamsters could not see patterns stripes vs speckles BUT the could still move toward food With the superior colliculus hamsters could not move toward food BUT they could still see patterns SUGGESTS THAT THERE ARE TWO VISUAL SYSTEMS IN MAMMALS SIMILAR findings from fish cats monkeys andhumans In Humans two separate quotvisual pathways I Visual Recognition System allows us to see details and recognize objects faces Available to our awareness Answers WHAT O O OO NEEDED 0 high quality image 0 Fully functioning fovea cones o LOTS oflight Visual Guidance System allows us to move Limited awareness Uses ENTIRE visual field Does not require lots of light Answers WHERE o The Selective Degradation Theory connects idea of two Visual systems to night driving