ACCT INFO SYSTEM
ACCT INFO SYSTEM ACCT 322
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Jarvis Reilly DDS
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jarvis Reilly DDS on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ACCT 322 at Clemson University taught by Richard Dull in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/214237/acct-322-clemson-university in Accounting at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Database Management Systems accounting information is stored in database tables Data mgt consists of creating and maintaining master data and recording event data data can be copied and stored in a separate database known as a data warehouse data mining is analyzing data with multidimensional tools advanced systems use software tools called intelligent agents Events activities that occur during the execution of business processes event data is captured to describe who what where and when Applications approach to business event processing concentrates on the process being performed data plays a supportive role to programs in systems Data redundancy data stored in multiple locations indicated by double ended arrows increases storage costs may not be sharable information when updated in one file may not be updated in another causing inconsistent data violating integrity data mirrors and monitors operations and provides the basis for mgt decisions its difficult and expensive to obtain data from application approach Database approach to business event processing facts about events are stored in relational database tables instead of separate files solves redundancy databases have improved the efficiency of processing business event data by eliminating redundancy and improving integrity one massive collection of business data mutipe users can view and aggregate data to their needs information processing is seems as a decisions support activity first and then a reporting function second IDatabase Mgt System enterprise database set of integrated programs designed to simplify the tasks of creating accessing and managing data DBMS defines data defines relations among data stores as physical media maps each users view of data schema a complete description of the record types data items and relationships among them defines the logical structure or organizational view subschema description of portion of the schema DBMS contains query language or data manipulation language DML used to access data and produce reports allows nontechnical users to get data DBMS include controls to protect the data from unauthorized users or from accidental changing of data data independence major difference bt database and application approach makes it so that data is independent of the application of other users data is shared by multiple systems data can be accessed through two user types report generation onscreen printed summaries and ad hoc user inquiries queries allow user to ask s about data through query language software two layers of software are needed to translate user view into instructions for retrieving data logica view the way the user thinks about the data in a database physica view the way the data is actually stored tabes are logical views of data that are physically stored users can access data in a table byquery creating a report requesting data SQL structured query language users don t always know querys are taking place because they can be placed in reports or can be a part of the program code Limitations of Applications Approach are overcome by 1eiminating data redundancy 2easier to maintain because you don t have to update data multiple times 3 reduced storage costs 4 data integrity by eliminating redundancy 5 data independencemeaning multiple programs can use data at the same time 6privacy Limitations of DBMS 1expensive 2 requires powerful expensive hardware 3requires hiring more peopleexpensive Limitation of DBMS Operations 1if DBMS fails all info gone 2 continuous data protection more important 3 when multiple users attempt to retrieve data at the same time the database can face contention or concurrency 4territorial disputes over who owns the data who is responsible for data maintenance database administrator is used to resolve operations limitations of DBMS ii Logical DBMS 1hierarchical records recorded in pyramid structure for simple situations ex bank using it for customer child records records below upper level records can only have 1 parent record a child of a parent record and a be a parent for another child parent records include lower level child records 2network database model a child record can have more than one parent record used to handle more complex database 3reationa database model data are organized in 2 dimensional tables each fact stored in its own table deveoped using set theory 2 dimensional collection of info is a relation cons requires more computer memory and processing time allows only text and numerical info most companies still use this 4 object oriented database model simple and complex objects can be stored here including video clips pictures data is stored in objects and instructions on objects encapsulated methods can be performed objects drawn with a rectangle with rounded corners divided into 3 parts name attributes and encapsulated methods objection relational databases have been developed relational database with the ability to store complex objects iii Elements of DBMS all have the same essential elements including 1 queries tools that allow users to access data stored in various tables 2 forms onscreen presentations of data in tables collected by queries or tables 3 reports printed lists and summaries of data most important step to useful database is designing the tables right each table stores data about 1 thing cell in database table can only include data allowed in its column and must include a specific value each row in database must be unique with a unique identifier known as primary key value stored in first column of table most companies create an artificial value for this Artificial values created by classifying and coding cassifying process of grouping common data ex sophomore junior senior coding creation of substitute values or codes for classifications Types of Coding 1Sequentia Coding serial coding numbers in chronological sequence additions can be made only at the end deletions result in unused numbers codes tell nothing about attributes 2Block coding groups of numbers are dedicated to particular characteristics of the objects UPC s use this because first block indicates manufacturer second block tells product 3 Significant Digit Coding assigns meaning to specific digits ex inventory item 4 Hierarchical Coding assigns meaning to specific digits but does so in descending order where each successive rank is a subset of the rank above it ex Zip code 5Mnemonic Code some or all of the code is made of letters ex Acc 322 6 self checking digit code includes an extra digit that can be used to check the accuracy of the code extra digit computed by mathematical formula composite primary key when tables use two or more columns as primary key iv Approaches to making relational database bottom up approach designers identifies attributes and puts them into tables normal forms rules that include specifications that must be met by relational databases 6 levels but business are good if they comply with the first 3 1NF preferred to table not in 1NF 2NF preferred to 1NF etc 3NF best normal forms are inclusive each higher normal form includes the ones below it anomaies tables that prevent errors functionay dependent an attributecoumn in table is dependent on a second attribute 1st always determines 2n an attribute is the primary key if all attributes are functionally dependent on that attribute no other columns have the first property unnormaized table contains repeating attributes within each row first normal form 1NF if it does not have repeating groups update anomalies dependencies in lNF data that cause problems including 1 many updates 2 inconsistent data 3 additions cause problems 4 deletions can end up deleting many things probems arise because we have dependency or partial dependency second normal form 2NF when a table is in lNF and has no partial dependencies no non key attributes attributes that aren t a part of the primary key transitive dependency exists when a non key attribute is functionally dependent on another non key third normal form 3NF a table that is in 2NF and has no transitive dependencies most database users prefer top down approach because it results in a better design even though its harder to understand data model tells user requirements for data stored in a database Types 1 Entity relationship modeling designer identifies the entities in which info will be stored about and then identifies how the things are related to each other relationships Entity relationship modeER includes an entity and relationships to others ER Diagram shows the systems key entities and relationships use rectangles entities connecting lines relationships and diamonds show the characteristics of relationships systems analyst determines the user requirements for the database if the process only occurs once it is NOT an entity Types of entities resources assets tangible and nontangible that company owns events occurrences related to resources that are of interest to the business agents people or organizations that participate in events can be external or internal ocations places or physical locations where events occur resources are stored and agents participate in events each relationship has a characteristic cardinality that shows the degree to which the entity participates in a relationship max cardinality measure of the highest level of participation that one entity can have in another entity 1 cardinality of one N of M cardinality of many reationships can be one of three types 1N or N1MN11 Creating ER Diagram 1create relational table for each entity 2 determine primary key for each entity 3determine attributes for each entity 4implement relationships among entity s reationship junction tables tables with composite primary keys that connect tables in a MN relationship 5 determine attributes for tables benefit of info in a database is that its easier to access decisions are unstructured therefore with databases mgt can make decisions wo assistance they can be assisted with problem solving aids and the system might at some point replace the decision maker Ways to replace the decision maker Decision Support Systems DSS user makes presentation of info that is suitable for them can perform llwhat if analysis info comes from internal and external structures the data wo giving solution a passive tool Executive IS ElSuser gets presentation that isn t necessarily suitable for them these follow programmed instructions asking for more info drill down has a graphical user interface GUI both of these provide views but don t actually make the decision they just help mgt make decisions better to distinguish systems by the users and the purpose today group support systems 655 or GDSS computer systems that support work for decision making creates a virtual meeting for a group groupware software that goes with 355 including email scheduling and document sharing expert systems ES these are used in complex decisions when consistency is desirable when you want to minimize time spent and maximize the quality experts are involved and their knowledge can be captured active teacher can make the decision or assist part of the downsizing strategy they are used to collect knowledge from retired distribute knowledge to employees or employees who can t get in touch with expert train new employees guide workers ES to implement must exceed the cost and cost of maintaining neural networks computer hardware systems that mimic humans brain ability used to find fraudulent credit cards they get their knowledge from data and trends in the data PWC uses TeamMate software which is a relational database used to filter and sort info for auditors inteigent agent software that can be integrated into a D55 designed to learn from the actions of the users and respond based on usage patterns knowledge mgt capturing storing retrieving and distributing knowledge for use by others to improve the quality and efficiency of decision making data warehousing use of IS to focus on the collection organization of long term storage of entity wide data done by copying data periodically in a separate database to be stored in data mining analysis of large amounts of data from across the company
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