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by: Jarvis Reilly DDS


Jarvis Reilly DDS
GPA 3.8

Richard Dull

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About this Document

Richard Dull
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jarvis Reilly DDS on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ACCT 322 at Clemson University taught by Richard Dull in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/214237/acct-322-clemson-university in Accounting at Clemson University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
Controlling Information Systems Control matrix provides a means to explain and analyze the controls that have been annotated on a systems flowchart Steps in preparing a control matrix 0 Specifying control goals goals listed in top row of matrix 0 Identify operations process control goals I Effectiveness goals describe measures of success for the operations process I Efficiency goals ensure resources used in business process are being employed in the most productive manner I Security goals protect entity resources from loss destruction disclosure copying sale or other misuse 0 Identify information process goals I Input goals ensure lV IC IA with respect to all business process data entering the system I Update goals ensure UC and UA of the business process input data only apply when there is a periodic process 0 Identifying recommended control plans nature and extent of control plans that should be in place to accomplish our objectives and minimize risk to an acceptable level of residual risk 0 Identify quotpresentquot control plans controls that seem to accomplish one or more of the control goals 0 Evaluate quotpresentquot P1 P2 describe how the control plan addresses each noted control goal Identify and evaluate quotmissingquot control plans examine the controls matrix evaluate the systems flowchart O Other terms Document design a control plan in which a source document is designed to make it easier to prepare the document initially and later to input data from the document Written approvals these take the form of a signature or initials on a document to indicate that someone has authorized the event This control ensures that the data input arises from a valid business event and that appropriate authorizations have been obtained Another control aspect of approving an input document is that such an approval segregates authorizing event from recording events Electronic approvals business events are routed using a computer system s workflow facility to persons authorized to approve the event Preformatted screens these control the entry of data by defining the acceptable format of each data field The system may provide dropdown lists of data that is acceptable for a given field such as shipping methods and sales terms To facilitate the data entry process the cursor may automatically move to the next field on the screen Online prompting requests user input or asks questions that the user must answer By forcing one to stop and accept the data online prompting is in a sense advising you to check your data entries before moving on Many systems provide contextsensitive help whereby the user is automatically provided with descriptions of the data to be entered into each input field Populate input screens with master data The clerk enters the identification code for an entity such as a customer and the system retrieves data about that entity from the master data This reduces the number of keystrokes required making data entry quicker and more efficient Fewer keying mistakes are expected To enable this control numeric alphabetic and other designators are usually assigned to entities such as customers vendors and employees Procedures for rejected inputs designed to ensure that erroneous data are corrected and resubmitted for processing To make sure that the corrected input does not still contain errors the corrected input data should undergo all routines through which the input was processed originally A llsuspense file of rejected inputs is often retained to ensure the timely clearing of rejected items We often depict such routines with the annotation llError routine not shown Programmed edit checks automatically performed by data entry programs upon entry of the input data Erroneous data may be highlighted on the input screen to allow the operator to take corrective action immediately Rejected business events may be listed in a summary report periodically produced by the computer Programmed edits can highlight actual or potential input errors and allow them to be corrected quickly and efficiently Reasonableness checks limit checks test whether the contents of the data entered fall within predetermined limits May describe a standard range or max values Documentrecord hash totals reflect a summarization of any numeric data field within the input document or record such as item numbers or quantities on a customer order Calculated before and after entry of the document this total can be used to determine that the applicable fields were entered accurately and completely Mathematical accuracy checks compare calculations performed manually to those performed by the computer to determine whether a document has been entered correctly The user might enter the individual items on a document such as an invoice and the total for that document The computer adds the items and compares that total to the one input by the user If they disagree something has likely been entered erroneously Check digit verification involves the inclusion of an extra digit a check digit in the identification number of entities such as customer and vendors The check digit is calculated originally by applying a formula to an identification number the check digit then is appended to the identification number Confirm input acceptance this control causes the data entry program to inform the user that the input has been accepted for processing The program may flash a message on the screen telling the user that the input has been accepted or it might display a number assigned to the event The data entry clerk might write that on the customer s order or read the to the customer Automated data entry this is a strategy for the capture and entry of eventrelated data using technology such as OCR bar codes and EDI These methods use fewer human resources and capture more data in a period of time than is possible with manual entry These methods improve accuracy of the entered data by eliminating the keying errors that can occur in manual data entry Enter data close to the originating source a strategy for the capture and entry of eventrelated data close to the place that an event occurs OLTE and OLRT are example of this processing strategy Databases are more current and subsequent events can occur in a timelier manner There is less risk that inputs will be lost because data are not transported to a data entry location Digital signature This technology validates the identity of the sender and the integrity of an electronic message to reduce the risk that a communication was sent by an unauthorized system or user or was intercepted in transit Exception and summary report this report reflects the events that were accepted or rejected by the system Even though the keyed input was edited and validated some data still could be rejected at the update stage of processing where the computer compares the input data with the master data Batch control plans regulate information processing by calculating control totals at various points in a processing run and subsequently comparing these totals When the various batch totals fail to agree evidence exists that an event description may have been lost added or changed Batch totals can re reconciled manually or the computer can reconcile them Documentrecord counts simple counts of the number of documents entered This procedure represents the minimum level required to control input completeness Item or line counts counts of the number of items or lines of data entered such as a count of the number of invoices being paid by all the customer remittances By reducing the possibility that line items or entire documents could be added to the batch or not be input this control improves input validity completeness and accuracy Dollar totals a summation of the dollar value of items in the batch such as the total dollar value of all remittance advices in a batch By reducing the possibility that entire documents could be added to or lost from the batch or that dollar amounts were incorrectly input this control improves input validity completeness and accuracy Hash totals a summation of any numeric data existing for all documents in the batch such as a total of customer numbers or invoice numbers in the case of remittance advices Hash totals normally serve no purpose other than control They can be a powerful batch control because they can determine whether inputs have been altered added or deleted Turnaround documents used to capture and input a subsequent event Examples are picking tickets and remittance advice stubs attached to customer invoices They can facilitate automated data entry They can be used for the input of individual items rather than batches Key verification takes place when input documents are keyed by one individual and then rekeyed by a second person The data entry software compares the 2nd keystrokes to the strokes keyed by the 151 individual Differences are assumed that one person misread or miskeyed the data Sequence check can be applied to those documents to determine that all documents have been processed Batch sequence checks the event data within a batch are checked as followed the range of serial numbers constituting the documents in the batch is entered Each individual serially prenumbered document is entered The computer program sorts the input documents into numerical order checks the documents against the sequence number range and reports missing duplicate and out ofrange data Cumulative sequence check provides input control in those situations in which the serial numbers are assigned within the organization but later are not entered in perfect serial number sequence The matching of individual event data numbers is made to a file that contains all document numbers Reports of missing numbers are produced for manual followup periodically Agree runtorun totals reconciling totals prepared before a computer process has begun to totals prepared at the completion of the computer process The totals may be prepared and reconciled either manually or by the computer This control is useful when there are several intermediate steps between the beginning and the end of the process and we want to be assured of the integrity of each process Tickler file a manual file of documents or a computer file that contains business event data that is pending further action Such files must be reviewed on a regular basis for the purpose of taking action to clear items from that file Should tickler file documents remain in the file for an extended period of time the person or computer monitoring the file would determine the nature and extent of the delay Oneforone checking the detailed comparison of the individual elements of 2 or more sources to determine that they agree This control is often used to compare a source document to an output produced later in a process Differences may indicate errors in input or update If the output cannot be found for comparison there is evidence of failure to input or process the event This procedure provides detail as to what is incorrect within a batch Oneforone checking should be reversed for lowvolume highvalue events because it s very expensive to perform Data encryption a process that employs mathematical algorithms and encryption keys to encode data so that it is unintelligible to the human eye and therefore useless to those who should not have access to it It is used in situations where the data are of such a sensitive nature that we want to preserve the data s privacy and confidentiality Compare input data with master data We can determine the accuracy and validity of the input data Such comparisons may be done manually or by the computer Three examples include inputmaster data match inputmaster data dependency checks and inputmaster data validity and accuracy checks Descriptions of these examples are on page 298


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