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by: Joshuah Kunde


Marketplace > Clemson University > Physics 2 > PHYS 208 > GENERAL PHYSICS II
Joshuah Kunde
GPA 3.64

Amy Pope

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Amy Pope
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joshuah Kunde on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 208 at Clemson University taught by Amy Pope in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/214240/phys-208-clemson-university in Physics 2 at Clemson University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
Equation Sheet Physics 208 Chapter 17 Wave Optics sinQZ v2 constant 311161 v1 f v if sin62 v2 n2 sin61 v1 711 V Speed oflight in material P object distance n of what the image is in goes above p cspeed of light in vacuum q image distance csin391 image height W 6mm mL23HH Ardsin6 ml Sin Ay object height h L h q A M d y mi h p L s mAL M Ym d R 1 f f focal length half radius 2 An Ti Ni11 A P 2t m M upright image M inverted image E qo R2f Chapter 18 Ray Optics Smell s Law nlsin 1nzsin z Equation Sheet Physics 208 q M kw r p f n1 772 772 771 V p q R Frontreal p amp q positive Incident light Reflected light Backvirtual p amp q negative Concave R and f are positive Convex R and f are negative Chapter 20 e 1602x103919 C GMM F 122 7 1112 FkeT2 ke 899 x 109Nm2C2 c E 31 m Totalne Nnumber of electrons eelectr0n charge 1 7 Wave Optics What is Light Light is an electromagnetic wave vhgm c 300x108 ms v f7 ltraviolet shortwave gamma Xrays rays I infrared radar TV AM rays rays r 39 1039 103912 10 10 10 6 mt 10392 1 102 10 h Wavelength meters H II VisibleLight h 0 Wavelength nanometers What is Light From our chart we can see that the wavelength of orange light is 600nm vlight C39300x108 ms v 300x108 ms f 9500x1014 HZ l 600x10 m traviolet shortwave gamma Xrays rays 1 infrared radar TV AM rays rays 7 1039 103912 10 I 10 1039 1390 10392 1 102 I Wavelength meters Visible Light 500 600 700 Wavelength nanometers Penetrates N N Atmosphere mast m wm 103 10 105 5x106 10 8 IDquot 1012 a if m a as Buildings Humans HoneyBee Pinpoint Protozoans Molecules Atoms Atomic Nuclei Frequency l I I I I l g 139 l l I I I I I m4 108 Ian 10 5 1016 I018 1020 ltraviolet shottwave Temperature gamma Xrays rays Infrared radar TV AM ofbodiesemitting r s the wavelength 33quot rays Kl y h 10 10 39 10 10 10quot To 102 10 104 Wavelength meters 5 quotA 400 500 600 700 Wavelength nanometers What is Light Wave Model light is a wave This is a true statement but not the entire picture How can we test that this model The COWS Soap bubbles can be IS correct DIffractIon understood using the wave model of light Diffraction is the spreading out of a wave which passes through a narrow opening Diffraction This phenomenon occurs when light is quotbentquot around particles that are on the same order of magnitude as the wavelength of the light A good example of this is the diffraction of sunlight by clouds that we often refer to as a 539ver ning Diffraction The light spreads out behind the slit Q m wide slit in an opaque screen Acident laser beam What is Light Ray Model light travels in a straight line The colors of soap bubbles can be understood using the wave model of light This is a true statement To understand the bU39l39 not the entire picture bending of light by a contactlens the ray model Chapterm is It IS dIffIcult for an obJect to appropriate travel in a straight line and wave around What is Light What is Light Photon Model this is a quantum model In the quantum realm light acts like neither a wave nor a particleinstead it consists of photonsphotons have wavelike and particlelike properties at The colors of soap Solar cells generate bubbles can be electricity from understood using the the same time sunlight We ll use the WBVe mOdEI 01 light photon model Chapter Solar cells generate 28 to understand how electricit from Photons are the quanta of light l To understandthe sunlight39yWe usethe bending of light by a photon model Chapter contact lens the ray 28 to understand how model Chapter 18 is appropriate Index of Refraction All waves spread out after passing through a small enough gap in a barrier This phenomenon is known as Light waves travel with a speed c in a vacuum but they 39 slow down as they pass through transparent materials like lass or water A antireflection g 5 elOUble39ellt interference This slowdown occurs due to the interaction of the 0 refraCt39On electromagnetic field of the wave and the electrons in D diffraction the material The index of refraction I7 is E speed of light in a vacuum v speed of light in the material IMPORTANT The frequency of the wave does not change as the wave moves from one medium to another n Index of RefracTion LighT waves Travel wiTh a speed c in a vacuum buT They slow down as They pass Through TransparenT maTerials like glass or waTer This slowdown occurs due To The inTeracTion of The elecTromagneTic field of The wave and The elecTrons in The maTerial The index of refracTion n is 3 speed of light in a vacuum v speed of light in the material Index of Refraction IMPORTANT The frequency of The wave does noT change as The wave moves from one medium To anoTher A transparent material in which light travels slower at speed v 611 3 Vacuum n 1 Index n n 1 A A jrz vac vac gt 4 A 5 quot The wavelength inside the material decreases but the 39l requency doesn t Change Index of RefracTion OpTical fibers are generally composed of silica wiTh an index of refracTion around 144 a How fasT does lighT Travel in a silica fiber b How long will iT Take for ThaT lighT To Travel from Clemson SC To Anchorage Alaska According To AskJeeves The disTance beTween These Two ciTies is 5475 km or 5475 x 106 m Since speed is xT 7 5475 x 106 m208 x 108 ms 263 x 10392 s ms InTerference of LighT Like all waves lighT waves of The same frequency CON in l er39fer39e Thu arm in wt ianyxisiilc lira Johanna consTrUCTively or to illL saxcar i a than Il iaf ll l I deSTr39UCTlVely Vicwnig I 393 fr Young 5 Double SIIT 3quot ExperimenT When lighT shines on Two h sliTs narrow closely spaced 7 fringes are seen on a ing31 lira n gr yrth 3x quot39 than H Kurd Hui l39l39xil39lli39lLl ll39lif screen behind The sIITs H lilayi39li m Mumii InTerference is a clear 4 a 1 i39ui trm at light and Lllll39li indicaTion of The Tr m l m i iiitzjrltg ij i39igaillli39ili iii naTure of lighT neiclcnt laser beam 39 o 0 o 0 Young S Double SIIT InTer39ference ExperimenT CoherenT LghT The key To makmg rl39 work V Coharam Iiaht gm of a single A if l Wz39itii iil iiiiiiiimim wavelengTh k is all Traveling in rllll l ltj39 kllllll l if llli i 39 W W m phase hITs The screen WITh The L u a 39 idle L illl g g 39 livlnnd in m quotm liraH WW Two parallel narrow sIITs boTh of rimi1 1 iii which are narrower Than 7 Since 1551 in in a I39 91 m 2 W The slITs are narrower Than The w m l H39iLIin39I mm wavelengTh The III uni Cemm ouT and disTribuTes iTself across a l 0 maximum The for screen I m l l m 2 115le Top View of m 3 5 he double slit lh39aii npii ai39 iiii i39lL H iiLri weenie u m 4 m lh li Hi iiUnl l1 illl39iici ii 1 i l nilt Flmm View lilll39l ll39iUl39 quotileil l lQilgili lill x 0 Screen quot39Il hall I as lL iillli Bright and Dark Fringes in the DoubleSlit The Double SIiT Experiment The angular posiTion in radians of The brighT fringe in The inTerference paTTern is The fringe intensity decreases because the light intensity from each slit by itself is not uniform quot H eras a A I 6 e I K Fringe spacing Ay 03 i b5 nsms Central l maximum l I The bright fringes 6 m m0123 d m where d is The spacing lt 39 are CL uulls need I l39l l Ar dsinHm mi m 0123 m 1 l p The P 53939 f quot 6 i br39ghl fringe aT a screen dIsTance L BrighT fringes occur due To Increasing light intensny 0 m InTerference m corresponds To The cenTral peak 2 m 2 0 1 2 3 m In general The mTh brighT fringe occurs where one wave has Traveled wavelengThs Ar mk Bright and Dark Fringes in the DoubleSlit Experiment y The position of the mTh bright fringe at a screen distance L The fringe intensin decreases because the light intensity from each slit by itself is not uniform H miL ym m0123 Fringe s acin A P g l Sl39t I IS Central maximum The position of the mTh dark fringe at a screen distance L XL The bright fringes quot397 V 9 are equally spaced light intensity 0 Note the dark fringes are exactly halfway between the bright fringes ym ml m0123 Increasmg 2 d Two narrow slits 004 mm apart are illuminated by light from a HeNe laser A 633 nm A What is the angle of the first m 1 bright fringe 6 m m0123 d 9 a m 16x10 2md 1 4x10 5m B What is the angle of the thirteenth bright fringe 9 613 13 02 rad X m A pair of narrow parallel slits separated by 0250 mm are illuminated by A 5461 nm The interference pattern is observed 120 m from the slits Calculate the distance a From central maxima to the first bright region on either side of the central max miL ybrighl m might I 215461x109mX120m 262 mm 0250x103m b Between the first and second dark bands in the pattern mm m 1 for rst bright fringe 2 d zi i zf Lzzozmm 2d 2d d The Diffraction Grating N slits with Spreading circular t39C interfere InsTead of 2 we now have N spacing d li oineuch SlllIUVL l39llllellLl closely spaced slits This is a A diffraction grating As the light passes through one slit a circular wave is formed Each of these waves interfere with the waves created by other slits ferret Diffraction is the spreading of light Diffraction occurs when waves pass through small openings around obstacles by sharp edges P39unewave approaching from left h39Vl lie rLl L from each slit travels Ar rsinl further than the was from the slit uhme it Bright Fringes for a Diffraction Grating V Screen lhe putlrlength tltllet39enee r l nel een thew paths ll39tllll ie lltllLlLk lll lih l M etetl lmtttttt1 lt II 2 Cn39uttng With ve slits m l ml m2 I In 0 I is extcll 3A 1 I L Appearance of screen dsin 6m 2 ml m 0123 Angles of brighT fringes due To a diffracTion graTing wiTh siTs a disTance d aparT ym L tan an The posiTions of The brighT fringes due To The diffracTion graTing a disTance L from The screen The Intensity Pattern Due to a Diffraction Grating NLtl39t39tHL bright y ll lllg x l39lll tth the screen is tl tll39l Light Grating intensit yNz I 0 l ImaX NZII This is The maximum inTensiTy of a brighT fringe for a diffracTion graTing wiTh siTs The Fringes Become Very Narrow as the Number of Slits is Increased N 50 C Light intensity 4 0 393 l00 2500 Ax the number nl39 Iih in the guttingy inerettxes the l39t39ittgex get llLll39l39tlL I39 and brighter A Diffraction Grating Splits Light into the Wavelengths That Make It Up The two wavelengths have been separated Blue light has it longer y wavelength than violet and thus Lllffl ilL tS more 39 a g lt All wavelengths overlap at 0 Light intensity 0 CD Diffraction Grating Memory 650700 MB CD is read with a 780 nm laSer The wavelength of the laSer is Selected so that the height difference between pits and lands leads to interference between light reflected off a pit and light reflected off a land ThinFilm Interference Lower n to higher n n2 n1 180 phaSe change ex air to oil Higher n to lower n n2 n1 no phaSe change ex oil to air Lets look at the wavelength of light in a medium with on You see this in an oil slick index of refraction n and 5WP bUbbles xi i The varied colors you See re5ult from the where 7 is the wavelength 0f WGVGS reflecting from opposite of light in a vacuum Surfaces of the film ThinFilm Interference Lower n to higher n n2 gt n1 180 phaSe change ex air to oil Higher n to lower n n2 lt n1 no phaSe change ex oil to air Iso phase mange 27quot F 0 Mmchanac n7 l39b n O ll 1quot n5 0d r Air ThlnFllm l The incident wave is Thin lm Glass Interference transmitted through the Index thin film and the glass V 4 A A lm 2 Part atquot the incident 3 Part of the wave re ects from the transmitted wave m suncuc H reflects from the second surface 5 4 The two reflected waves overlap and t interfere Phase Changes Due to Re ection ThinFilm Interference Case 1 ii gt11 A The reflected waive 2t m7 m 012 does not have a 739 phase changer This condition isused for consiruciiveinierference where m0 or 2 re lectlve phase changes Thi case may also be s used when there is 1 reflective phase change 2n This destructive interference T39ii ict39icciiun 39 iih iiiL NLM Lil condltlonls used where m0 or lid iiwhi ii i iiL il liil m iiir 39i 2 reflemve phase changes ii iii iiii an i s H This case may also be used h 39l N i Mi when there is oniy 1 reflective quot quot phase change does have a phase 21 mdrlji m 012 change


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