New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Mrs. Tia Tillman


Marketplace > Clemson University > Geology > GEOL 101 > PHYSICAL GEOLOGY
Mrs. Tia Tillman
GPA 3.57

Alan Coulson

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Alan Coulson
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Geology

This 69 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Tia Tillman on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 101 at Clemson University taught by Alan Coulson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/214245/geol-101-clemson-university in Geology at Clemson University.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/26/15
Rivers and Streams Major agent of weathering and erosion Important human concerns water flooding etc Runoff amp Channel Runoff abrades underlying soilrock Forms a groove that grows over time Channel troughditchtrench where the water is located Vshaped valley Water tries to focus itself into the spot of lowest elevation divides different from glaciers carving out the U Drainage Basin Area that contains all water flowing down into the channel Watershed Divide r I Grnunld Water Tributaries Smaller channels f a eventually feed into larg l c ones Different patterns 2 1Branchlngdendrltlc default drainage pattern 2Radial immediately 1amp6 know elevationmiddle must be higher t 0 3Trellis rectangular instead of small acute Remgu39mme angle it s a boxy angle inr linnfiva nf Infg nf Levee amp Floodplain Raised area quot quotf39i j 39i Elul39lllrka whm n 39quot bordering the meme H at edga39 lllhe channel Hangman Area at lgg gre agsm elevation as channel Channels Channels are usually straighter and have narrow floodplains in areas of steep elevation gradients Cutting through resistant bedrock Gravity Channels In areas of lower gradient channels start meandering Cutting through sediment Lower slgpgea f I w r quotat Meanders Going around turns water on the outside of the meander must move faster to keep up with the water on the inside of the turn Meanders Water on the outside moves faster so it has more erosive energy Cut Bank Water on the inside is moving slower deposits instead of erodes Point Bar Meanders Results in meanders migrating over 139imn Emslon httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvGpBQaQNnTwwampfeaturerelated Mature Terrain Areas where streams meander but are confined to valleys w narrow floodplains Form as a result of topographic uplift enhancing river valley formation Common in this area of the UM Braided Streams Multiple interlaced channels instead of 1 Can form in areas with variable discharnn hemv codimnnl cunnlv easily Sediment Bedforms Ripples sand moving via saltation forms ripples results in crossbedding Dunes largescale ripples Same mechanisms as w deserts Discharge How much water moves past a point in given amount of time Discharge velocity x area If Discharge increases until channel cannot contain all the water flooding occurs Floodplain Development Floods deposit lots of finegrained sediment here Good for agriculture but promotes development in the flood zone Man vs River 39 Migration causes problems for development and land use Some channels artificially straightened Problems develop w habitat loss and more severe flooding Floods How OftenBig Recurrence interval time between two events of a certain magnitude 1interval percent probability Ex There s a 20 chance that a flood of magnitude X will occur in a given year 20 1 in 5 5year flood Varies from river to river depending on climate floodplain width and channel size Need to assess each river individually Deltas Mouth where river empties into another body of water As current slows amp stops transport ends and deposition commences Distributariessmall channels branching 11 I Mquot v off the main chann Delta Growth Lobespart of a delta Diff lobes grow at different times lobe switching Delta Movement If you change the channel or coast the river may switch to a different lobe Ex Sed deposits add weight cause subsidence Delta Swamps Distributaries amp sediment deposition help create widespread wetlands Sediments can help filter contaminants out of the water before it reaches the 1 l r Delta Blues S I uman activities can quickly alter delta environments Groundwater pumping increases subsidence Artificial levees prevent flooding dry out wetlands Dams block sediment transport can increase coastal erosion and flooding Coasts Where ocean meets the land Remember NOT the boundary between continental amp oceanic crust Tides Side of earth facing the moon at any given time has a high tide bulge 2 highs 1 solar 1 lunar and 2 lows each day Solar tides smaller 9H nwg caecu nag Eu rre misiw39 rl E zmy m3 39 an Title High THEE Surf s High Tide granlitmus pull I 4 Spring amp Neap Tides Spring forces lined up Neappull against each other Tide Height Varies due to obstacles islands continents etc Hawaii open ocean has a tidal range of 12 ft Bay of Fundy has a tidal range of ca 40 ft Tidal Flats Area of land flooded at high tide but exposed during low tide Waves Generated by wind moving water Faster wind bigger waves Also increase w wind duration and dist VVaves IF 39 quot q minimum of waws um pan by line when buoy each 519mm IF 39 Time II mks two imaging rem Wavelength g m distance between 2 waves Wm Hm plh Of willch water Is distributed by the ma an n the passing wave 313mm bul not below Surf Zone When water depth gets lt 12 wavelength waves will slow and start to break Thus waves get higher slower and closer together coming towards shore waves entering shallow water wavvs Inuch hmlnm wavelength snnnens wavvs in ee water t l l El I nns an wave eng mve r length 4 surrznne st r22 Wave Refraction As they near shore wave crests turn parallel to the shore The end of the wave closer to shore bottoms out first and slows down Longshore Drift Many waves still hit shore at a small angle Backwash goes in opposite direction carrying sand with it Creates a longshore current that helps sand drift along Shoreline Features Beach shoreline comprised of sediment sand amp gravel Sand budget additions amp subtractions the sand balance land sea coastal small d 5mm fl waves coastal wind wind T waves dri doe ash dune was beach sang over over coastal erosion storm sand fro m mars inter tidal nearshore offshore Shoreline Features Other controls Tectonicsuplift or subsidence Rock typeresistance to erosion Sea level fluctuations Tidal amp storm sizestrength Erosional Coastlines Tectonic uplift creates rocky cliffs Stacksisolated steepsided islets Terraceformer shoreline now elevated Terraces Blluclt dlla ggram Illustrating characterlstlcs of recently emergent coasts Previous wavecut platforms are elevated above sea level and farm terraces Depositional Coastlines Tectonic subsidence Long wide beaches amp coastal plains Sandbars spits barrier islands Coastal Erosion If erosion gt deposition coastline will erode Coastal Erosion Main Points This is a natural process it becomes a hazard bc we build structures close to the coastline Any construction along coastlines will likely cause changes in erosion amp deposition patterns Many efforts to stabilize part of the coastline will destabilize other areas Beach Development Try to block erosion w manmade structures Barriers Meant to stop sand movement reduce wave energy Problemsaves beach in one place at the expense of neighboring locations Several types of barriers Seawalls Built parallel to the coast Block waves before they hit the shore Problem expensive hard to maintain may cause MORE erosion by blocking sediment deposition Groins r r Built perpendicular 39 out from shore Longshore current blocked on one side drops sediment Free to pick up MORE sediment downcurrent Downdrift Side Beach Nourishment Artificial deposition Expensive Beach Nourishment Results mixed Miami restored beaches stable for 20 years NJ spent 5 million sand was eroded in lt 3 years Some wildlife Continental Margins 2types Passiveno plate boundary nearby Activeplate boundary usually Continental Margins Shoreline shelf slope Escarpment I E C 1 II Sediments Terrigenoussediments from land Carbonates found in different places Whyphytoplankton don t want to live in the dirty murky water All the little tiny shells at the bottom of the ocean Continental Shelf Flat shallow area just offshore Passivethick sediment layers Active thickness varies seds often distorted volcanic material present shelf sometimes shorter Continental Shelf Economically important fishing hydrocarbon deposits Ex Middle east Continental Slope Steep gradient Water depth too great for waves and tides to influence Deposits of finegrained sed carried past the shelf Some coarser deposits also found Turbidity Currents Shelf deposits sometimes slump over the edge earthquakes Sed water can flow quickly down the slope Turbidites Sediment deposited at near the base of the slope in submarine fans Continental Rise Small bulge at the base of the slope formed by seds being deposited Continental Shelf Guntlnental Slupe Ocean Floor Abyssal Plain wide flat featureless Little terrigenous sediment this far from land Lots of carbonate sed deposition from planktonic shells Deep Sea Carbonates Majority from tiny plankton foraminifera Only see carbonate deposits at depths lt 4 km CCD Calcite Compensation Depth depth at whic o a a unstable and Why Do the Shells Dissolve Cold water can absorb more COZ than warm water High pressure at great depths also makes CO3 more soluble 0 meters Setting DI mineral particles organlc waste and shells of mlaorganlsm Region oi hlg39l 1000 2 3 WC 3 g 3 l 3 promenme 2000 i 139 l l l i Mldocearic ridge 3 i 3000 VJ r w Carbonate 6er 4000 oompematlon Ii 7 if Deep Ocean Seds Clays amp muds finest particles that haven t yet settled out of the water column Deposited slowly mm s per 1000 years MidOcean Ridge Plate boundary Formation of new oceanic crust Ridge split by M0 trenchvalley Plates Selma ate 3 a I I i i L i e t x Exploring the Seafloor Problem light only penetrates 100 m or so below the surface Also have to cope with T and P at depth Exploring the Seafloor Submersibles Cool but dangerous some via remote expensive and difficult Recover actual samples but can only scoutasma Exploring the Seafloor Drilling DSDP deep sea drilling project amp ODP Recover cores through layers of sediment Water saturate Exploring the Seafloor Sonar Sound waves bounced off seafloor recorded via microphones in water Can give great detail but signal can also be noisyhard to interpret Exploring the Seafloor Satellites Can measure distance from satellite to ocean surface win cm s via radar UndenNater structures affect local sea level via gravity anomalies Sea mounts water piles up above Trenchesgravity depression above Hurricanes Aka typhoon cyclone etc regional variation Form in areas of low wind high humidity and warm surface waters Tropical North Atlantic these conditions define hurricane season JuneNov H urricanes Rain releases heat warms atmosphere so air rises amp P drops Warming air causes more rain which creates a positive feedback Vl nds start circling low press area cc in Northern Hemisphere via Coriolis Effect Wnrm mm 1 mm mm mum Hurricanes 23 mph tropical depression 39 mph tropical storm named 74 mph hurricane Categories 15 on Saffir Simpson Scale predicts damage amp flooding SaffliirSimjmson Il39llurricalne Scale Streamed Sim Category Winds mph gumg Damage Emmplas 45 at Mlnlmd Dmrwm39r AL 96110 68 foot Modorm Goorgos 1998 FLMS 111130 7 912 rm Extonllm J Handset No 131166 131mm Extreme H Andrew1892 FL gt155 gt13 foot Catastophic Camille1969MS Hurricanes Storm surgedome of water forms under the low pressure center Enhanced by winds Causes a lot of the flooding esp if it coincides with high tide storm tide DIESSUFE wind driven surge 1quot Surge


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.