INTRO TO HUMAN COM
INTRO TO HUMAN COM COMM 150
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lydia Metz on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 150 at Clemson University taught by Eddie Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see /class/214250/comm-150-clemson-university in Communication Studies at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Terms for Chapter One Communication The process of creating or sharing meaning in informal conversation group interaction or public s eakin Participants Individuals who assume the roles of senders and receivers during an interaction Messages Verbal utterances visual images and nonverbal behaviors to which meaning is attributed during communication Meanings Thoughts in our minds and interpretations of others messages Symbols Words sounds and actions that are generally understood to represent ideas and feelings Encoding The process of putting our thoughts and feelings into words and nonverbal cues Decoding The process of interpreting another s message Psychological interference Internal distractions based on thoughts feelings or emotional reactions to symbols Internal noise Thoughts and feelings that complete for attention and interfere with the communication process Semantic noise Distractions aroused by ceItain symbols that take our attention away from the main message Feedback Reactions and responses to messages Communication setting The different communication environments within which people interact characterized by the number of participants and the extent to which the interaction is formal or informal also called communication context Intrapersonal communication The interactions that occur in a person s mind when he or she is talking with himself or herself Interpersonal communication Informal interaction between two people who have an identi able relationship with each other Small group communication Two to 20 people who participants come together for the speci c purpose of solving a problem or arriving at a decision Public communication One participant the speaker delivers a prepared message to a group or audience who has assembled to hear the speaker express10ns 39 without much conscious thought Scripted messages Phrasings learned from past encounters that we judge to be appropriate to the present situation Example Please pass the sugar Followed by Thank you Constructed messages Messages put together with careful thought when we recognize that our known scripts are inadequate for the situation Think we construct a message Immediacy The degree of liking or attractiveness in a Control The degree to which one paIticipant is perceived to be more dominant or powerful Culture Systems of knowledge shared by a relatively lar e rou of eo le Ethics A set of moral principles that may be held by a society a group or an individual Ethical dilemma A choice involving two unsatisfactory alternatives Communication competence The impression that communicative behavior is both appropriate and effective in a given situation Credibility A perception of a speaker s knowledge trustworthiness and warmth Social ease Communicating without appearing anxious or nervous Communication apprehension Fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated with others Context The setting which communication occurs including what precedes and follows what is said Physical context A communication encounter s location environmental conditions temperature lighting noise level distance between communicators seating arrangements and time of day Social context The nature of the relationship that exists between the participants Historical context The background provided by previous communication episodes between the participants that in uence understanding in the current Psychological context The mood and feelings each person brings to a conversation Cultural context The values attitudes beliefs orientations and underlying assumptions prevalent among people in a society Channel Both the route traveled by the message and the means of transportation Interference Sometimes referred to as noise it is any stimulus that interferes with the process of sharing mannina Physical interference Sights sounds and other stimuli in the environment that draw people s attention away from intended meaning Terms for Chapter Three Language A body of symbols most commonly words and the systems for their use in messages that are common to the people of the same speech community Speech community A group of people who speak the same language also referred to as a language Symbols used by a speech community to Words represent objects ideas and feelings Sapir Whorf hypothesis A theory claiming that language in uences perception Example people who are into decorating can distinguish color by descriptive adjectives ie pearl white Denotation The direct explicit meaning a speech community gives a word The dictionary definition of the word Connotation The feelings or evaluations we associate with a word Syntactic context The position of a word in a sentence and the other words around it Low context cultures Cultures in which messages are direct specific and detailed Not depended on a great deal of context with the message High context cultures Cultures in which messages are indirect general and ambiguous Needs to be understood based on the context of the communication situation Feminine styles of language Use words of empathy and supp01t emphasize concrete and personal language and show politeness and tentativeness in speaking Masculine styles of language Use of words of status and problem solving emphasizes abstract and general language and show assertiveness and control in speaking Speci c words Words that clarify meaning by narrowing what is understood from a general category to a particular term or group within that cate ry Concrete words Words that appeal to the senses and help us see hear smell taste or touch Precise words Words that narrow a larger category to a smaller group within that category Dating information Specifying the time or time period that a fact was true or known to be true Indexing generalizations The mental and verbal practice of acknowledging the presence of individual differences when voicing generalizations Vivid wording Wording that is full of life vigorous bright and intense Simile A direct comparison of dissimilar things uses like or as Metaphor A comparison that establishes a gurative identity between objects being compared Emphasis The importance given to certain words or ideas Jargon Technical terms whose meanings are A 1 only by select groups Linguistic sensitivity Language choices that demonstrate respect for listeners Slang Informal vocabulary used by particular groups in society Generic language Using words that may apply only to one sex race or other group as though they represent everyone Terms for Chapter Four Nonverbal communication behaviors Bodily actions and vocal qualities that typically accompan a verbal message Emoticons Typed symbols that convey emotional aspects of an online message Kinesics The interpretation of how body motions Gestures Movements of our hands arms and ngers that we use to describe or to 39 39 Illustrators Gestures that augment a verbal message Emblems Gestures can substitute for words Adaptors Gestures that respond to a physical need Eye contact or gaze How and how much we look at people with whom we are communicating Oculesics How and how much we look at others when communicating Facial expression The arrangement of facial muscles to communicate emotional states or reactions to messages Posture The position and movement of the body Body orientation Posture in relation to another person Body movement Movement that helps clarify meaning motivated or movement that distracts listeners from the point being made unmotivated Haptics What and how touch communicates Vocalics The interpretation of the message based on paralinguistic features Paralanguage The voiced but not verbal paIt of a spoken message Pitch The highness or lowness of vocal tone Volume The loudness or softness of tone Rate The speech at which a person speaks Quality The sound of a person s voice that J39 quot 39 39 it from others Intonation The variety melody or in ection in one s voice Vocalized pauses Extraneous sounds or words that interrupt uent speech Proxemics The interpretation of a person s use of space and distance Personal space The distance you try to maintain when you interact with other people Physical space The physical environment over which you exert control Artifacts Objects and possessions we use to decorate the physical space we control Chronemics The inteEpretation of a person s use of time Monochronic time orientation A time orientation that emphasizes doing one thing at a time Polychromic time orientation A time orientation that emphasizes doing multiple things at once Endomorph Round and heavy body type Mesomorph Muscular and athletic body type Ectomorph Lean and little muscle development Terms for Chapter Nine Healthy group A group characterized by ethical goals interdependence cohesiveness productive norms accountability and synergy Group A collection of three or more people who interact and attempt to in uence each other in order to accomplish a common purpose Group communication All the verbal and nonverbal messages shared with or among members of the group Interdependent group Group in which members rely on each other s skills and knowledge to accomplish the group goals Cohesiveness Force that brings group members closer together Team building activities Activities designed to build rapport and develop trust among members Norms Expectations for the way group members will behave while in a grou Ground rules Prescribed behaviors designed to help the group meet its goals and conduct its conversations Accountability Group members being held responsible for adhering to the group norms and working toward the group s goals Synergy The multiplying force of a group working together that results in a combined eff01t greater than any of the palts Forming The initial stage of group development characterized by orientation testing and Storming The stage of group development characterized by con ict and power plays as members seek to have their ideas accepted and to find their place within the group s pow er structure Groupthink A deterioration of mental efficiency reality testing and moral judgment that results from in rou ressure to conform Norming The stage of group development during which the group solidi es its rules for behavior resulting in greater trust and motivation to achieve the group goal Performing The stage of group development when the skills knowledge and abilities of all the members are combined to overcome obstacles and meet goals successfully Ad journing The stage of group development in which members assign meaning to what they have done and determine how to end or maintain interpersonal relations they have developed F amin A group of intimates who through their communication generates a sense of home and group identity complete with strong ties of loyalty and emotion and experience a history and a future Social friendship group A group comprised of friends who have a genuine concern about each other s welfare and enjoy I J39 g time together Support group A group comprised of people who come together to bolster each other by providing encouragement honest feedback and a safe environment for expressing deeply personal feelings about a problem common to the members Interest groups A group comprised of individuals who come together because they share a common concern hobby or activity Service group A group comprised of individuals who come together to perform hands on charitable works or to raise money to help organizations that perform such work Work group A collection of three or more people formed to solve a problem Work group goal A future state of affairs desired by enough members of the group to work motivate it towards its achievement Frankly I think this is about as common sense a defmition constructed by the largest number of unnecessary words I have ever seen v by Eddie Smith Heterogeneous group Group in which various demographics levels of knowledge attitudes and interests are represented Homogeneous group Group in which members have a great deal of similarit Group dynamics The way a group interacts to achieve its goals Terms for Chapter Ten The problem solving process Step one identify and define the problem Step two Analyze the problem Step three Determine Criteria for judging solutions Step Four identify alternative solutions Step Five Evaluate solutions and decide upon the best Problem definition A formal written statement describing the problem Question of fact A question asked to determine what is true or to what extent quot 39 g is true Question of value A question asked to determine or judge whether something is light moral good or just Question of policy A question asked to determine what course or action should be taken or what rules should be adopted to solve a problem Criteria Standards or measures used for judging the merits of proposed solutions Brainstorming An uncritical non evaluative process of generating possible solutions by being creative suspending judgment and combining or adapting ideas Decision making methods The expert opinion method asking the person in the group with the most expertise in the matter The average group opinion method each member ranks the solutions and the solution with the highest ranking is selected The majority rule method the group votes and the majority vote determine the solution The unanimous decision method every member of the group agrees that same solution is best The consensus method every member of the group agrees that a solution is acceptable Decision making The process of choosing among alternatives Informal or emergent leaders Members who gain power because they are liked and respected by the group Shared leadership functions The sets of roles that group members perform to facilitate the work of the group and help maintain harmonious relationships between members Task roles Sets of behaviors that help a group acquire process or apply information that contributes directly to completing a task or goaL Maintenance roles Sets of behaviors that help a group develop and maintain cohesion commitment and positive workin 39 39 39 Procedural roles Sets of behaviors that directly support a group process Types of task roles Information or opinion givers provide content for discussion Information or opinion seekers probe others for their ideas or opinions Information or opinion analyzers help the group to scrutinize the content and the reasoning of the discussion Types of maintenance roles Supporters encourage others in the group Interpreters members who understand social cultural and gender differences and might offer clari cation of opinions H armonizers intervene in the discussion when conflict arises Mediators neutral and impartial arbiters who guide the discussion to help prevent con ict between differing opinions Tension relievers group members who recognize when stress has become an issue and attempts to relieve the stress by humor Agenda An organized outline of the information and decision items that will be covered during a meeting Deliverables Tangible or intangible products of work that must be provided to someone else Written brief A very short document that describes a problem background process decision and rationale so that a reader can quickly understand and evaluate a group s product Comprehensive report A written document that provides a detailed review of the problem solving process used to arrive at a recommendation Executive summary A one page synopsis of a comprehensive report Oral brief A summary of a written brief delivered to an audience by one or more group members Symposium A set of prepared oral reports delivered sequentially by group members before a gathering of people who are interested in the work of the group Panel discussion A structured problem solving discussion held by a group in front of an audience Remote access report A computer mediated audiovisual presentation of a group s process and outcome that others can receive electronicall Streaming video A pre recording that is sent in compressed form over the internet Terms for chapter fouIteen Public speaking apprehension A type of communication anxiety or nervousness Is the level of fear you experience when anticipating or actually speaking to an audience Performance orientation Seeing public speaking as a situation in which a speaker must impress an audience with knowledge and delivery And seeing audience members as hypercritical judges Communication orientation Seeing a speech situation as an opportunity to talk with a number of people about a topic that is important to the speaker and to them Visualization A method to reduce apprehension by developing a mental picture of yourself giving a masterful speech Systematic desensitization A method to reduce apprehension by gradually visualizing increasingly more frightening speaking events Cognitive restructuring A method to systematically rebuild thoughts about public speaking by replacing anxiety arousing negative self talk with anxiety reducing self talk Public speaking skills training The systematic teaching of skills associated with preparing and delivering an effective public speech with the intention of improving speaking competence and thereby reducing public speaking apprehension Delivery How a message is communicated orally and visually through the use of voice and body to be conversational and animated Conversational style An informal style of presenting a speech so that your audience feels you are talking with them and not at them Spontaneity A naturalness that seems unrehearsed or memorized Animated Live and d amic Pitch The highness or lowness of the sounds produced by the vibration of your vocal cords Volume The degree of loudness of the tone you make as you expel air through your vocal cords Rate The speed at which you talk Quality The tone timbre or sound of your voice Intelligible Understandable Articulation Using the tongue palate teeth jaw movement and lips to shape vocalized sounds that combine to produce words Pronunciation The form and accent of various syllables of a word Accent The articulation in ection tone and speech habits typical of the native speakers of a I Vocal expressiveness The contrasts in pitch volume rate and quality that affect the meaning an audience gets from the you speak Monotone A voice in which the pitch volume and rate remain constant with no word idea or sentence differing signi cantly from any other Pauses Moments of silence strategically used to enhance meaning Facial expression Gestures Eye and mouth movements Movements of hands arms and fmgers that illustrate and emphasize what is being said Movement Changing the position or location of the entire body Motivated movement Eye contact Movement with a speci c puEpose Looking directly at the people to whom we are speaking Audience contact When speaking to large audiences creating a sense of looking listeners in the eye even though you cannot Posture The position or bearing of the body Poise Graceful and controlled use of the body A The way we look to others Impromptu speech A speech that is delivered with only seconds or minutes of advance notice for preparation and is usually presented without referring to notes Scripted speech A speech that is prepared by creating a complete written manuscript and delivered by rate memory or by reading a written co Extemporaneous speech A speech that is researched and planned ahead of time although the exact wording is not scripted and will vary from presentation to presentation Rehearsing Practicing the presentation of your speech aloud Speaking notes I Word or Phrase outlines of your speech Terms from Chapter Eleven Subject A broad area of 39 39 J Topic Some speci c aspect of a subject Brainstorming An uncritical non evaluative process of generating associated ideas Audience analysis The study of the intended audience for your speech Audience adaptation The active process of developing a strategy for tailoring your information to the speci c speech audience Survey A questionnaire designed to gather information from people Setting The occasion and location for your speech General speech goal The intent of the speech Speci c speech goal A single statement of the exact response the speaker wants from the audience Secondary research The process of locating information about your topic that has been discovered by other people Periodicals Magazines and journals that appear at xed intervals Primary research The process of conducting your own study to acquire information for your speech Examples Speci c instances that illustrate or explain a general factual statement Expert opinions Interpretations and judgments made by authorities in a paIticular subject area Expert A person who has mastered a speci c subject usually through long term study J Brief often amusing stories Narratives Accounts personal experiences tales or lengthier stories Comparisons Illuminate a point by showing similarities Contrasts Highlight 1quotquot Plagiarism The unethical act of representing a J author s work as your own 1 Terms from Chapter Twelve Organizing The process of selecting and arranging the main ideas and supporting material to be presented in the speech in a manner that makes it easy fort the audience to understand Main points Complete sentence representations of the main ideas used in your thesis statement Thesis statement A sentence that identifies the topic of your speech and the main ideas you will present Speech outline A sentence representation of the hierarchical and sequential relationships between the ideas presented in a speech Parallel Wording in more than one sentence that follows the same structural pattern often using the same introductory words Time or sequential order Organizing the main points by a chronological sequence or by the steps in a process Topic order Organizing the main points of the speech by categories or divisions of a subject Logical reasons order Emphasizes when the main points provide proof supporting the thesis statement Transitions Words phrases or sentences that show the relationship between or bridge ideas Goals of the introduction Getting attention stating the thesis establishing your credibility setting a tone creating a bond of goodwill Methods of gaining attention Startling statement rhetorical questions personal reference quotation stories Appeal Describes the behavior you want your listeners to follow after they have heard your arguments Points of a conclusion Summary of main ideas leaving vivid impressions appeal to action Terms from Chapter Thirteen Audience analysis The process of customizing our speech material to your audience Relevance Adapting the information in the speech so that audience members view it as important Timely Showing how information is useful now or in the near future Proximity A relationship to personal space Personalize Presenting information in a frame of reference that is familiar to the audience Common ground The background knowledge attitudes experiences and philosophies that are shared by audience members and the speaker Personal pronouns we us our pronouns that refer directly to members of the audience Rhetorical questions Questions phrased to stimulate a mental response rather than an actual spoken response on the part of the audience Credibility The level of trust that an audience has or will have in the speaker Knowledge and expeItise How well you convince your audience that your are quali ed to speak on a topic Trustw01thiness Both character and apparent motives for speaking Personableness The extent to which you project an agreeable or pleasing personality Initial audience attitudes Predispositions for or against a topic usually expressed as an opinion Visual aid A form of speech development that allows the audience to see as well as to hear information Object A three dimensional representation of an idea you are communicating Charts Graphic representation that present information in easily interpreted formats Word chaIts Used to preview review or highlight important ideas covered in a speech Flow chaIts Use symbols and connecting lines to diagram the progressions through a complicated process Graph A chart that compares information Bar graphs Charts that represent information using a series of vertical or horizontal bars Line graphs Charts that indicate changes in one or more variables over time Pie graphs Charts that help audiences visualize the relationships among parts of a single unit Flip chart A large pad of paper mounted on an easel It can be an effective method for presenting visual aids Terms from Chapter Fifteen Informative speech A speech that has a goal to explain or describe facts truths and principles in a way that increases understanding Intellectually stimulating Information that is new to audience members Creative Using information in a way that yields different or orig39nal ideas and insights Divergent thinking Thinking that occurs when we contemplate something from a variety of different I I quot Mnemonics A system of improving memory by using formulas Acronyms Words formed from the rst letter of a series of words Description The informative method used to create an accurate vivid verbal picture of an object geographic feature setting or image Definition A method of informing that explains quot 39 g by identifying its meaning Synonym A word that has the same or similar meaning Antonym A word that is a direct opposition Comparison and contrast A method of informing that explains something by focusing on how it is similar and different from other things Narration A method of informing that explains quot 39 g by recounting events Demonstration A method of informing that explains a u is g by showing how a done by displaying the stages of a process or by depicting how something works Expository speech An informative presentation that provides carefully researched in depth knowledge about a complex topic Terms from Chapter Sixteen Persuasive speech A speech that ahs a goal to in uence the beliefs or behaviors of audience members Propositions A declarative sentence that clearly indicates the speaker s position on the topic Uniformed Not knowing enough about a topic to have formed an opinion Impartial Knowing the basics about a topic but still not having an opinion about it Apathetic Having no opinion because one is uninterested to a topic Reasons Main point statements that summarize several related pieces of evidence and show why you should believe or do Argument The process of proving conclusions you have drawn form reasons and evidence Arguing by example Support a claim by providing one or more individual examples Arguing by analogy Support a claim with a single comparable example that is signi cantly similar to the subject of the claim Arguing from causation Support a claim by citing events that have occurred to bring about the claim The dry weather hurt the local lake economV Arguing by sign Support a claim by citing information that signals the claim longer lines at a soup kitchen are a sign that the economy is Hasty generalization A fallacy that presents a generalization that is either not supported with evidence or is supported with only weak evidence False cause A fallacy that occurs when the alleged cause fails to be related to or to produce the effect The black cat crossing the street brought me bad luck so I had an acciden Ad hominem argument A fallacy that occurs when one attacks the person making the argument rather than the argument itself Goodwill The audience perception that the speaker understands empathizes with and is responsive to them Being responsive Showing care about the audience by acknowledging feedback from the audience 39 subtle negative cues Motivation Forces acting on or within an organism to initiate and direct behavior Incentive A reward promised if a particular action is taken or goal reached Statement of reasons pattern A straight forward organization in which you present the best supported reasons you can find Comparative advantages pattern An organization that allows you to place all the emphasis on the superiority f the proposed course of action Criteria satisfaction pattern An indirect organization that rst seeks audience agreement on criteria that should be considered when they evaluate a particular proposition and then shows how the proposition satis es those criteria Problem solution pattern An organization that provides a framework for clarifying the nature of the problem and for illustrating why a given proposal is the best one Motivate sequence pattern An organization that combines the problem solution pattern with explicit appeals designed to motivate the audience to act The five steps of the motivated sequence are attention need quot quot quot visualization action