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by: Silas Gleason


Silas Gleason
GPA 3.72

Heather Batt

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About this Document

Heather Batt
Class Notes
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Silas Gleason on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PKGSC 102 at Clemson University taught by Heather Batt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see /class/214274/pkgsc-102-clemson-university in Packaging Science at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/26/15
Packaging Materials PKGSC 102 Metals Steel NonBeverage Cans in US Beverage Cans in Europe Drums strapping etc 0 Aluminum Beverage Cans Trays Foil Bare 0r Laminated Textbook Chap 7 covers Can making Steel and Aluminum Chap 14 pp33 1340 read for next time Metals Cans Two Basic Types 0 Three Piece 1 2 3 0 Two Piece 1 2 Fig 71 in Text Fig 72 in Text Two Methods of Making 2 Piece Cans Drawn and Ironed Aluminum or Steel Draw Redraw Aluminum or Steel Term Tin Can is not accurate 0 Materials and Uses 0 Base box Table 73 and 74 in textbook p151 1 base box 31360 sq in 112 sheets of 14 x 20 Plating weights speci ed as lbs base box ex Tin plated steel designated as 20 plate has 010010 lbsbase box tin Higher plate number thicker plating Three Ways to Seal Side Seam of Three Piece Can Fig 73 in text Can Welding Process Similar to Fig 74 in text Double Seam 2 amp 3 Piece Cans Fig 76 in text Packaging Materials Paper and Paperboard PKGSC 102 Four Categories of Materials 0 Paper and paperboard Metals steel amp aluminum 0 Glass Plastics WoodPaper and Paperboard Raw Material wood 0 Applications for Wood in Packaging barrels crates nailed or wire bound boxes 0 Wood contains 50 cellulose 30 lignin 20 carbohydrate Cellulose structure for paperpaperboard Lignin brown sticky substance 0 Paper 012 thick or less Paperboard greater than 012 thick thickness is referred to as example 0014 14 point paperboard 0 Cross Section of Wood Fiber 0 Structure of Cellulose What plastic comes from wood Answer cellophane Three Ways to Make Pulp 1 Mechanical Groundwood Least expensive for 2 Reasons a Doesn t use chemicals b Use all ofthe wood Low brightness and strength Usually combined with other pulps 2 Chemical a Sulfate Kraft Most widely used b Sulfate c Soda not mentioned in your book Higher quality than Mechanical pulp 3 SemiChemical Cook wood in chemicals Grind in disc refiner Not used much except for Corrugated media Paper Making Start with Pulp 7 bers suspended in water Papermaking Machinery is large Speed 3000 ftmin Web width 30 ft Production 800 milesday Two Types of Paper Making Machines Fourdrinier 7 for paper or paperboard Cylinder 7 for paperboard only TwinWire mentioned in book as a 3rd Fourdrinier Machine 7 see Figure 51 amp 52 in text Cylinder Machine 7 see Figure 53 amp 54 in text Cross Section of Cylinder Board 7 see Figure 55 in text 0 General Procedure for Both Processes Screen Squeeze Dry Calendering Paper run through stack of rollers Increases density and smoothness Important for strength and print quality PaperPaperboard Speci cations Basis Weight lbssq ft Paper lbs3000 sq ft Paperboard lbs1000 sq ft Thickness Measured and expressed in inches for paper Measured in inches but expressed as points for paperboard Advantages Renewable Recyclable Inexpensive Easily printed upon Disadvantages Porous to moisture and oxygen Loses strength when wet Combustible Paperboard Bending Grade Board used for folding cartons Types of Board clay coated news back solid bleached sulfate 0 Uses cereal boxes cake mix boxes 0 Variety of Design Styles 0 Layout CAD die board cylinder or at coordinate with graphics electronically Example layout for folding carton 7 see Figure 613 intext Scoring and bending offolding cartons 7 see Figure 65 amp 66 in text Layout for optimal utilization of paperboard 7 see Figure 6 11 in text LockingClosure and Reclosure features 7 see Figures 616 amp 617 Solid Fiberboard 0 Several plies of paperboard laminated together 0 Uses Distribution Packaging shipping containers dividers comer supports Corrugated Paperboard 0 Basic construction Corrugated medium utes A B C E and F utes Linerboard Comes in different basis weights Speci ed with burst or edge crush tests Single face single wall double wall and triple wall Cross diagram of corrugated7 see Figure 151 in text Three Important Features 1 2 3 u 1 unz mumquot HAS IC CONSIRDCIX ON 0 Design CAD Speci cations of Freight Truck and Railroad associations Product Requirements Shippingstoragehandling conditions Must account for scoring allowances Flutes should be oriented parallel to depth demotion for best stacking strength Parts ofa Regular Slotted Container RSC 7 see Figure 158 in text Box size designations for length width and depth 7 see Figure 1512 in text Scoring Allowance also see Figure 1513 in text 0 Uses A B C utes in double and triple wall Shipping boxes Point of purchase displays E and F utes Retail boxes for small appliances or bulky items Fast food packaging Burst and Edge Crush Tests 7 see Figure 156 in text Box Makers Certi cate 7 see Figure 157 in text Variety of abbreviations used for corrugated box designs 7 see Table 159 in text Common box styles 7 see Figure 1519 in text Review for Final Exam Materials Forms Rigid glass bottle SemiRigid squeeze ketchup bottle Flexible bread bag or potato chip bag Types of closures induction seal child resistant tamper resistant decorative etc Dimensional Analysis What is meant when film converter says they have put 15 of poly on the web Materials Flexible Composites Properties of laminates structural barrier Two ways to form a pouch VFFS and HFFS How is permeation affected by thickness less permeable through thicker material What are three ways to laminate films extrusion lamination dry and wet bonding What order are multilayers read in outside to inside Package Testing I What are the levels of packaging Primary secondary tertiary quaternary I What are the 3 basic areas of testing Quality environmental shipping and abuse distribution and transportation I Know about the areas of testing and the specific tests I Know how to solve problems relating to stacking strength Packaging Machinery I What are four options for increasing line production Buy new equipment Do something with existing equipment Buy refurbished equipment Hire a contract packager Packaging Machinery I What is linespeed Speed of all individual machines connected together to form the production line and how fast that production line produces product I What really counts the most in a packaging machinery line Output I Know how to solve problems related to linespeed and machine efficiency Packaging Machinery I What are the two main types of fillers Constant level Constant volume I How do they differ Packaging Graphics and Printing I Package design consists of two components What are they Technical and Physical requirements Feature and characteristics that lAttract and inform customers I Motivate purchase I Features and characteristics will include information about Demographics and psychographics Packaging Graphics and Printing I What are the three fundamental messages a package must answer What is this What will it do for me Who guarantees it I What is trade dress Color shape and typographic style of a package protected under copyright laws Packaging Graphics and Printing I What are the four basic methods of printing Relief planographic gravure screen I Be familiar with these and know how to tell the difference between them if you are looking at a package Packaging Development I What are four types of Package Development Projects Modify existing pkg for existing product Use existing pkg for different products Develop new pkg for existing product Develop new pkg for new product I What are the two development paths for pkg development Total system path Pkg development Path Package Development I What department in a company drives packaging development Marketing I What type of organizational chart is often used to lay out the package development timeline Gantt Chart Environmental Laws and Regulations I What are the two main types of environmental Laws and Regulations Health laws focused at Federal Level Environmental laws focused at State and Local level Many laws indirectly related to packaging Mandatory recycling laws Know modifications for packages lDegradable high cone pull tabs for beverages IAseptic brick pack ban in Maine Environmental Laws and Regulations I Packaging is the largest contributor to solid waste by what percentage 30 I What is the solid waste hierarchy for disposal Source reduction Recycling Incineration Landfill Environmental Laws and Regulations I Know the plastic recycling sorting codes as determined by the Society of Plastics Industry SPI Packaging Innovations I What are the four stages of product lifecycle Introductions Growth Maturity Decline Packaging Innovations I What does innovation do Helps boost sales Changes with consumer demands Changes with technological developments I What is the number one factor driving innova on Convenience Functions of Packaging PKGSC 102 Packaging Functions Overview 0 Contain ProtectPreserve InformSell Provide convenience or utility of use not in your textbook Levels of Packaging 0 Primary Packaging directly in contact with the product Example Cereal bag inside box 0 Secondary Package holding one or more primary packages Example Box holding bagged cereal Teltiary Shipping or distribution package Example Corrugated box used to ship a number of cereal boxes Quaternary Unit load Example Stretch wrapped pallet load of corrugated shipping containers 0 Many products do not require all four levels of packaging Example Corrugated container holding a refrigerator can be a primary and teltiary at the same time Example Deodorant sticks have primary package no secondary but has tertiary and quaternary Functions of a Package Containing Oldest packaging function p 24 of text discusses things to consider when selecting a package Product s physical form Viscous free owing liquid solid etc Product s nature characteristics Perishable shape under pressure etc 0 Protect protect package from elements water oxygen light bacteria germs etc shock and vibration protect consumer from the contents corrosive or dangerous products which involve child resistant packages protect against tampering tamper evident or restraint but never tamper proof 0 Inform Sell Information required by law 39 Contents 39 Nutritional label 39 Warnings 39 Shipping information Motivational Information not required by law 39 Type of material 39 Shape and size 39 color 39 typography Motivational Information cont 39 Symbols or icons 39 Illustrations or photographic images 39 Games 39 Recipes Know the term trade dress 39 Includes shape color and print 39 Covered under trademark law 39 Examples Coca Cola Disney characters sports teams university logos etc 0 Utility of Use Provide Convenience For the consumer 39 Easy openingresealing 39 Squeezable 39 Microwavable 39 Unit dose For the retailer 39 Size 39 Orientations for shelf display 39 Point of purchase displays For the shipperdistributor 39 Hand holds 39 Fork truck cut outs 39 Reusable totes


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