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by: Dr. Fabiola Klein


Marketplace > Clemson University > History > HIST 124 > ENVIRONMENTAL HIST
Dr. Fabiola Klein
GPA 4.0

James Jeffries

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James Jeffries
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Fabiola Klein on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 124 at Clemson University taught by James Jeffries in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/214276/hist-124-clemson-university in History at Clemson University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
NATHAN BREIDENBACH 102610 HISTORY 124 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE SECTION I 1 Central Place Theory a Relative to Von Thunen s Isolated State theory b City is central to the hinterlands c Rings around city I City ii Agriculture iii Forest iv Grain v Animals d Farmers produced for pro t i How much city consumers would pay ii How much it cost to transport to Chicago 2 Sharecropping a Leverage between sharecroppers and landowners i Freedmen demands b Cotton takes over i Most pro t ii Best climate iii Easy to transport railroads c Merchants gain the most d Hurts the environment i Depletion of soil ii Erosion iii Spread of bollweevil iv Pressured animals to find other food v Blacks migrate north 3 Hydraulic Mining a 1850s Gold rush b Overruns place mining i Fortyniners c Corporate mining i Use hydraulic mining machines ii Can afford them iii New laws shift mining to the private sector 1859 iv Accelerated the rate of mining v Destruction of mining habitats NATHAN BREIDENBACH 102610 4 Theodore Roosevelt Rough Rider during the Spanish American War Naturalist American hero Conservationism i National Parks 1872 ii National Parks Service iii US Forest Service 1905 iv Pinchot as 1St Chief of Forest Service 1905 v In uenced by Muir and Pinchot vi Approach evolved over time to conservationism QOC39N 5 National Parks as national treasures a Nature used as symbolic representations of America i Provokes nationalismpride b lrony i What s unnatural X Humans are kept out ofthe parks 0 Preservation of Land 6 Death of organic city a Due to sanitation laws b What did organic city have i Animals horses chickens cows pigs ii Poop from animals iii Humans close to animals and poop is unhealthy c What changed i Legislation prohibits animals ii City Technologies 1 Trellis subways elevated railways 2 Plumbing to rid sewage 3 Dams and aqueducts clean water 7 Understanding nature through labor a Throughout history we only know nature by working the land b Based entirely on the relationship between humans and the land they work 0 Impossible to disentangle nature from man NATHAN BREIDENBACH 102610 8 Columbia River as organic machine a Retains natural unmade qualities b Working the river I Dams ii Canneries iii Gillnetters iv Strollers v Shipping vi Poundnetters O These all provide energy i Hydroelectric energy ii Energy from salmon d River is a machine for the energy it produces by being natural SECTION II Chicago as Gateway City A Boosters 1 Entrepreneurs trying to raise interest in Chicago 1830s 2 They recognize its location as a commercial empire B Booster Dreams 1 Attempt to locate the next major cities a Pro t off of the real estate or investments in railroads etc C Natural Advantages for Chicago 1 Next to Great Lakes connects to New York and the East 2 Region of rich resources 3 Drawn by ow of goods 4 Junction between Eastern means and Western opportunity D Railroads 1 Chicago has a shallow harbor a Railroads are more ef cient 2 Transcontinental railroad by Central Pacific and Union Pacific companies links Chicago and East to the West 3 Chicago becomes commercial seat a Cattle brought from cowboys in Texas b Gold and raw goods from West processed in Chicago c Trade between East and West is centered in Chicago Busy Hives A 01 l NATHAN BREIDENBACH 102610 Chicago has advantage over other gateway cities a Low prices for eastern goods high for western b Business and transportation link to Northeast Railways terminate at Chicago a Railroads were magic and hard to imagine life without them in Chicago Conquers its hinterlands a Hinterlands like ghost landscapes that gave Chicago it s birth Eastern lnvestors CHOSE Chicago as their gateway city to the Great West A Great Lakes manufacturing businesses Machine tools Agricultural implements Hardware Furniture Products for markets the east had yet to conquer B New Business Trends 1 Drummers traveling salesmen a Less investment b Westward rail discounts 2 Montgomery Ward Tlhook a Catalogues b No Store c Sold wholesale to large consumer base d Complex levels of management e Busy Hive refers to the illustration of the inner workings ofWard offices on a catalogue f Links City to the west blurred by the complexity g City and country technologies are coordinated but this coordination is blurred by their sheer complexity C Chicago as the White City 1 White City convention a Showcased world contributions to industries b People felt confused yet dazzled c Disconnected between cities d Chicago s bright future as an arterial busy hive NATHAN BREIDENBACH 102610 e Nobody knew where the city was heading Conservationism A O U ITI Gifford Pinchot 1 Chief of Forest Service 1905 2 Advisorto Roosevelt 3 Governor of Pennsylvania 4 Progressive Republican 5 Yale Alumni Member of Skull and Bones Society 6 Believed in a utilitarian approach a Management or controlled use of resources forthe greater good ohn Muir Lands in Yosemite Valley in 1863 University ofWisconsin never graduated Explorer of Nature Industrial Engineer Founded the Sierra Club in 1892 a Romanticist approach nature as God s temple b Preservation 6 In uenced Roosevelt in creating more National Parks FnPFDN Both wanted to conserve American resources 1 The methods by which they wanted to do so differed Typifying the two strands of Conservationism 1 Muir environmentalist 2 Pinchot conservationist Shortcomings of Each 1 Pinchot s approach removal of nature can have cascading effect 2 Muir s approach didn t allow for resources to even be used Clash at Hetch Hetchy 1 San Francisco Earthquake of1906 a City burned for days b Recognized need for water reservoir 2 Hetch Hecthy Valley a Could be ooded to make San Francisco Reservoir 3 Muir opposes the flooding of Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park Pinchot supports the flooding because its forthe greater good Roosevelt out of office Taft opposed the flooding Muiris happy 0301A NATHAN BREIDENBACH 102610 7 Woodrow Wilson passes the Raker Act 1913 Muir is depressed 8 Reservoir begins to be built completed 1923 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE NATHAN BREIDENBACH 120210 Section I Identifications 8 Silent Spring A Written 1962 by Rachel Carson B Sparked the environmentalism movement C Her thesis 1 Uncontrolled use of pesticides such as DDT was harmful as it killed animals and humans a DDT banned in 1972 D Title 1 Suggests a spring without birds to sing because they re all dead from pesticides SepticTank Suburbia A Evolution of the Critique 1 1940 50s a Widespread failures of faulty tanks b Pro s speak out Federal Housing Administration sanitation engineers city planners and progressive homebuilders 2 1960s a Public concern on groundwater i Widely publicized industrial chemical contaminations ii Frothy drinking water ew b Federal Action i Department of Housing and Urban Developments ii Government subsides for sewer construction 3 1970s a Continued Federal Action i Water Pollution Control Act B Number of Septic Tank Increase 1 Building Industry a Septic tanks lowered production cost while passing maintenance cost to consumer 2 Homebuyers a Concerns centered on short term needs i Buying the dream ii Most don t even know that they have a septic tank Advantages of a septic tank 039 VI VI i Sound investment can have home in more exotic locations Pitfalls of Modern Environmentalism A Two Positions towards work 1 Productive work in nature destruction of nature a Logging fishing mining etc 2 Oldfashioned work leads to knowledge of nature a Original use of nature was for leisure i Machines destroyed this relationship 3 These positions obscure the relationships between work and nature The Nature Company s lrony aka the Discovery Channel Store Nature in a mall Nature for mass consumption Yet the store s goal is to connect us with nature Nature fills a void in our lives tranquility authenticity wilderness and play but we purchase nature E We should keep track of both the nature that we preserve and that which we consumework The Green Revolution A Mechanized farming in 3rd world countries B Backed by World Bank and International Monetary Fund C Effects 1 3rd World debt and deforestation 2 Monoculture exports loss of biodiversity in agriculture 3 Fooddependence on 3rd world people 4 Loss of land for settlement Biotechnology Revolution A GE patents an oileating organism 1 Living organisms now able to be patented B Monsanto 1 Producer of RoundUp pesticide 2 Patented RoundUp resistant seeds GMOs a Genetically Modified Organisms i Use bacteria and viruses to insert DNA ii Create a dependence on seed and chemicals iii Pose potential health threats 3 Monopolized the agriculturalfood industry 4 Put former employees in crucial positions in the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food amp Drug Administration Environmental Justice Movement A 1982 Protest in Warren County NC 1 Stateapproved construction of landfill to dump toxic waste 2 Coalition of blacks and environmentalists a Combined the Civil Rights Movement with Environmentalism 3 Roots Love Canal Catastrophe pom a Toxic Waste had been buried under the town of Love Canal Niagra NY in 1978 VIII Deep Ecology and Gaia Hypothesis A Deep Ecology 1 Arne Naess 1972 a Holistic view of ecology i Like humanity the living environment has the right to flourish too ii Thus we must think twice about how we useabuse nature B Gaia Hypothesis 1 James Lovelock 1972 a Earth as a single organism i Physical components of Earth are integrated to form a complex interacting system Section II Essays 3 I The Rise of the Modern Environmentalist Movement A Distinguishing features 1 Centered on ecology a Study of interrelatedness of organism with their abiotic environments b Challenges earlier conservation movement i Humans are a part of nature ii Ecology is complicated B Targets of Activism 1 Backyard and wilderness 2 Air water and climate C Aldo Leopold 1 Yale Forestry Graduate 2 A Sandy County Almanac we abuse land because we view it as a commodity belonging to us 3 LandEthic a Bridged John Muir s conservation ideology into environmentalism D Post WWIICold War America 1 Housing boom a Need fortimber i Management of Parks and Forests tricky balance 2 Recreation industry a Commercialization of parks and forests 3 Multiple Use Act 1960 a National Forests may be used for timber needs and recreation 4 The Wilderness Act 1964 a Wilderness areas are protected but serve multiple uses under the Multiple Use Act E Fueling the movement 1 Rachel Carson s Silent Spring a Instant bestseller b JFK pledged investigations into pesticides c Opposition helped absorb environmentalism into the public agenda i Carson goes on CBS Primetime show ii 2nd printing ofthe book 2 Richard Nixon a Signed several acts and laws in support of the environmentalism movement 3 Cold War a Threat of nuclear holocaust i Provokes feelings of environmental protection Ascendency of the HighEnergy American Home A William Levitt tract house technology 1 Levittown NY one of the first suburban tracthouse neighborhoods B Shift to highenergy housing 1960s and 70s 1 Causes a Time lag from WWII rationing b Availability of cheap fuel and electricity c Consumers wanted comfort and convenience d Homebuilders wanted to market these houses C Involvement of Corporations 1 GE and Westinghouse electric companies seize power a Need for cheap electricity 2 Lawn Mower and Automobile Companies a Suburban families require transportation and something to make cutting their lawn more convenient b Cadillac Marketing appealing to emotions i Convenience always want it ii The American Dream got to have it iii Middle classupper class D Environmental and Social Consequences 1 US Forests depleted and visibly destroyed 2 Septic tanks pollute groundwater 3 Loss of open space for recreation 4 Raised public awareness a Need for a new landethic see essay III below The Quiet Revolution 1950s 70s A Stop destruction of country side 9000 quotquotquotquot G Zoning districts for landuse Development on private land might threaten public good Open Space 1 Sparked by suburban sprawl QOC39N 39D Less land for recreation Home development harms the open space we do have Population growth causes more homes to be built The visible destruction of farmlands forests hills swamps marshes etc by developments Activist s 3 Arguments I Conservation ii Beauty iii Recreation Ecological Awareness Consumer culture is selfish materialistic and ignorant focused on the shortterm needs of buying the dream Legislation 1 National Land Use Policy Act debated 19701973 a b c Pioneer ethic is dangerous Land as a resource improper use has permanent effects Opposition i Destruction of private property ii Ends housing boom iii Realestate investments would be ruined


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