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Date Created: 09/23/14
827 History of Evolutionary Thought Arustoties cm 0 Being options to get answers are limited in early ages this leads to thoughts 3 and theories 93 Egguymg Ouadvoas Ream5 and nmtm myths originate from attempts at explaining things like fossils Bards Greeks 39139 Wm Plato amp Aristotle quot939 Chain of Being Aristotle quotquotquotquot top people bc of fire tools and language lmmbt tatgililty gfmtlhleallflatural World Plato hum quotmi 6 Mm mwm recognized variation among people buildingfiddling with things was not approved of at the time better to talk or mathematically discover the answer Renaissance use knowledge of the past 39 quotquotquotquot 3 39 39 quot quot 39 exploration strong Christian influence widespread belief in Biblical Creation use of direct observation and experimentation towards Islamic ways not Greek DaVinci and Vesalius dissected cadavers people plants and animals made drawings now frowned upon but valuable to scholars determining dates of creation used church records and descriptions of battles 1500s 1600s Bishop James Usher calculated Creation to have been nightfall prior to Oct 23 4004 BCE scholarly impressive bc it incorporated knowledge from a variety of sources 1700s Carolus Linnaeus foundations of biological genus species ex homo sapiens accepted that species were fixed don t change over time but populations have changed in response to environment 1700s 1800s Compte de Buffon noted that different parts of the world have different animals and plants suggests a pattern George Cuvier extinction is real explained with catastrophism there are events that wipe out a lot of life and life gets replaced supported by modern scientific knowledge GC thought that these events were divine that species are fixed and that North American animals were weaker William Paley systems were designed top down explanation order in natural world proof of a designer God Iestacaea Hard Sheila nmgersi Maiacosmnu l 301 Ehdlod tnngosi BLOODLCSS something so wellputtogether and complex is a sign of intelligence JeanBaptiste Lamarck need and use traits can be shaped by the environment correct individuals acquire new traits and then pass them down incorrect Thomas Malthus Essay on the Principle of Population unchecked population will increase exponentially and run out of food eventually James Hutton founder of modern geology processes shaping the earth tides glaciers rock have been the same all along specific to geology but used elsewhere Charles Lyell the earth was really really really old noted that more primitive fossil life tended to be found in what seemed to be older strata rock layers Erasmus Darwin Charles Darwin s grandfather flower reproduction abolitionist physician naturalist hinted at evolution in natural history themed poems avoided being accused of opposing the church Richard Owen shared descent humans ultimately evolved from fish through a divinely guided process originally a collaborator and friend eventually a rival and critic of Charles Darwin coined the term dinosaur museums allowed scientists and scholars to share ideas with the public new idea at the time later argued that human and ape brains had significant structural differences Charles Darwin upper class was going to be a doctor couldn t stand blood got a degree in divinity loved nature plants and animals on track to be a country parson received an invitation to go on a five year voyage on The Beagle 3rd4th choice to go Captain Fitz Roy wanted an educated companion during the voyage Captain and Darwin got along well most of the 5yr voyage was spent on land Galapagos Darwin did not develop the theory of evolution there animals without a lot of predators very friendly differences between tortoises on different islands possibly bc of different plantsfood source suggests relationship between traits and environment collection of animal species saw first hand effects of geological processes Back in England developed interest in selective breeding married cousin interested in barnacles didn t travel much bc of poor health realized variations in finches match different environments food predators etc on different islands Alfred Russell Wallace working class school dropout travelled brought back things from all over the world for rich people sent Darwin a paper for review it was the theory of evolution just with less support and lacking some of Darwin s ideas Darwin and Wallace presented joint papers Darwin had priority over Wallace bc more credibility holistic knowledge more wellknown than Wallace no opposition from Wallace allowed him Wallace to avoid the risk of proposing evolution Origin of Species 1859 came out and set off huge debates many scholars recognized it as paradigm changing 93 Evolution by Natural Selection Origin of Species Descent with Modification I what happened A process D how it happened Natural Selection filter with a process that leads to profound change over time Observation 1 all organisms have potential for explosive population growth Observation 2 in nature populations are relatively stable Deduction 1 not every individual will survive some kind of filter is present Observation 3 nature is full of variation Deduction 2 some variation are favored some are not not everyone has the same outcome natural selection acts on individuals on particular traits 3 Conditions 1 trait must be inherited to some degree 2 trait must vary among individuals 3 environment must put pressure on the trait differential reproductive success of individuals is based on specific heritable traits consequences some traits become more common some traits disappear if population diverges enough a new species emerges Evolution by Natural Selection evolution descent with modification in populations trait could be morphological physiological developmental or behavioral individuals are subject to selection populations evove reproductive success of offspring an organism produces individuals gt populations gt species Darwin s Evidence Biogeography species distribution Galapagos finches similar areas don t always have similar groups of animals same animals don t occupy niches in similar areas Embryology developing organisms have similar structures that disappear before birth barnacles and other crustaceans share features Paleontology study of fossils older rock layers contain related to younger organisms sequences of related organisms on top of each other in rock layers Morphology Homology superficially different and fundamentally similar Vestigial structures ex snakes have relic hind limbs Artificial Selection dog breeding selection not based on environment Key Implications revolutionary idea Darwin was reluctant to publish living world is dynamic not static rejects the things are what they are idea things change great continuity between very different organisms despite diversification over time and space location tree of life not line of life living world is a product of nonteleological not goal directed process we can understand everything evolution is not goal oriented everything is explainable Darwin didn t set out to attack religious belief religious argument we don t know and there is no way to know Darwin found this unsatisfying things that look like they were manmade were actually naturally occurring and can be scientifically explained