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by: Miss Bartholome Hackett


Marketplace > Clemson University > Chemistry > CH 102 > GENERAL CHEMISTRY
Miss Bartholome Hackett
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Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Bartholome Hackett on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 102 at Clemson University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/214303/ch-102-clemson-university in Chemistry at Clemson University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
Chapter 162166 Entropy I Spontaneity of a reaction 11 Entropy S A Entropy increases AS gt 0 if disorder increases B Standard Entropy S JKmole ASquot ZS products ES reactants III The Laws of Thermodynamics and Entropy S A First Law of Thermodynamics de nes the conservation of energy you can t get more energy out than you put into a system B Second Law ASHquotverse gt 0 positive for a spontaneous process 7 this law gives the direction of spontaneous change C Third Law Sperfect crystal 0 JK at absolute zero 7 this law de nes entropy Course Objectives for CH 102 Spring 2011 Chapter 16 Sections 16 2166 Entropy Big Ideas I For a spontaneous process the total entropy of the universe has to increase We use AG which is easier to calculate and will be discussed later in the semester I Entropy drives molecular organization Objectives 1 Predict the sign ofAS for given processes 2 Understand the implications of the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics 3 Calculate ASO from tabulated values Chapter 11 Solutions 1 Solution Formation A Solution formation is entropy driven due to nature s tendency toward mixing B like dissolves like 1 polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents Vitamin C is water soluble 2 nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents Vitamin A is fat soluble C What do temperature changes indicate about the enthalpy changes that occur during SOllnion formation AHsolventsolute VS AHsolventsolvent AHsolutesolute Note AHsolmion E 0 for chemically similar solvents and solutes 11 Factors that affect the solubility of a substance A Pressure applies to gases dissolved in liquids only Henry s Law solubility ofa gas s kHPIgas B Temperature 1 Solubility of solids and liquids usually increases as temperature increases 2 Solubility of gases always decreases as temperature increases III Colligative Properties entropy driven only so only dependent on the number of particles in solution The solutions are assumed to contain nonvolatile solutes A Vapor Pressure Lowering VPsolmion lt VPsolvem Psolution XsolventPsolvent Where Xsolvent MAI MAI MA B Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression The temperature range where the solution is in the liquid phase is extended by adding a nonvolatile solute l Abp i Kb m 2 Afp i Kf m C Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure H iMRT IV Solution Units memorize these units and how to interconvert between them A Molarity M moles solute liter solution temperature dependent B molality m moles solute kg solvent C mole fraction XA moles N moles solution D mass A massA mass501mi0n 100 Course Objectives for CH 102 Spring 2011 Chapter 11 Solutions and their Properties Big Ideas 0 The process of solution involves both entropy and energy changes 0 Like dissolves like 0 Colligative properties are entropy driven and therefore only depend on the number of particles in solution After you study this chapter you should be able to l Distinguish between solutes and solvents 2 Explain the phrase quotlike dissolves likequot in terms of the types of interactions between particles in a solution 3 Describe the solvation process of an ionic salt in water Explain the stability of a solvated lon 4 Explain why the entropy of solution is positive for most substances 5 Explain why the enthalpy of solution may be positive or negative in terms of the energy changes associated with breaking and making intermolecular attractions 6 Express solution concentrations in terms of molality molality mole fraction mass percent and related units Perform related calculations and be able to convert between these units 7 Know when and why each of these units is used 8 Explain the effects of temperature and pressure on the solubility of solids liquids and gases 9 Explain the differences in vapor pressure in pure substances and solutions of nonvolatile solvents 10 Apply Raoult s Law to calculations of the vapor pressure of solutions with nonvolatile solutes ll Explain boiling point elevation and freezing point depression 2 Perform calculations related to boiling point elevation and freezing point depression measurements 13 Explain osmosis and osmotic pressure in terms of entropy changes and perform related calculations 14 Discuss uses of colligative properties Chapter 10 Liquids Solids and Intermolecular Forces Suggested end of chapter problems the answers are given in the Appendix Review 22 32 34 36 40 42 New 26 46 48 50 56 68 84 86 88 Review Interspecies forces are responsible for physical properties of materials The stronger the attraction the higher the boiling point melting point viscosity and the lower the vapor pressure A Ionic bonds 2001000 kJmol attraction increases with increasing charge and decreasing ion size B Intermolecular forces a ka van der Waals forces 1 Hydrogen bonding 1040 kJmol affects molecules with HN HO andor HF bonds only 2 Dipoledipole 34 kJmol affects polar molecules only Increases as dipole moment increases 3 London Dispersion llO kJmol induced dipole increases with no of electrons and length 4 IonDipole 1050 kJmol occurs between ions and polar solvents C Some Properties of Liquids A Viscosity liquid s resistance to flow B Surface Tension liquid s tendency to minimize its surface area I Evaporation Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point II Phase Changes A Enthalpy changes 1 AH for sublimation vaporization and fusion melting AH for deposition condensation and freezing 2 AHvap gt AH ision B Heating Curves C Phase Diagrams Triple Point Critical Point Critical Temperature Critical Pressure quotNormalquot Boiling Point and quotNormalquot Melting Point occur at 1 atm of pressure III Solid Structures amorphous vs crystalline solids A Units cells are classi ed by their symmetry eg simple cubic body centered cubic facecentered cubic B Fundamental types 1 Molecular solidsunits are molecules held together by intermolecular attractions Hbonding dipoledipole and dispersion forces Also included are the noble gases Examples H20 C02 S8 Ne Ar He Xe He Kr Rn 2 Ionic solids funits are cations and anions held together by electrostatic attractions Examples NaCl ZnS Can 3 Metallic Crystalsunits are metal cations in a sea of valence electrons electrostatic attractions Examples Cr Fe Cu Ca Na 4 Network covalent crystalsunits are nonmetals or semimetals held together by covalent bonds Ex C diamond or graphite Si Ge Sn P As Se Te SiC SiOz Course Objectives for CH101 Spring 2011 Chapter 10 Liquids Solids and Intermolecular Forces Big Ideas I Intermolecular forces IMFS are responsible for physical properties of materials I IMFS can be predicted from the molecular structure shape and bond polarity I Physical properties can be predicted from the molecular structure of a material After your study of this chapter you should be able to 1 Distinguish between intermolecular and intram olecular forces 2 Identify and explain the origin of London Dispersion forces dipolediple forces and hydrogen bonding 3 Explain why hydrogen bonds are significantly stronger than other dipoledipole attractions and discuss the significance of hydrogen bonding in water 4 Use IMFS to explain the properties of viscosity capillary action surface tension in liquids 5 Identify phase changes from a heating or cooling curve 6 Discuss what the thermal energy is used for during heating a liquid and contrast this with what it is used for during boiling the liquid 7 Draw a heating curve for a given substance 8 Use standard molar enthalpy heat of fusion and heat of vaporization in calculations 9 Discuss why AHvaponmon gt AHfusion 10 Explain why phase change is a constant temperature process 1 1 Distinguish between evaporation and boiling 12 Define vapor pressure 13 Explain how a liquid can change to a gas below the boiling point 14 Explain boiling and boiling point in terms of vapor pressure and the kinetic molecular theory 15 Identify the different types of solids the intermolecular forces responsible for each and typical properties 0 eac 16 Generate and interpret phase diagrams 17 Define triple point and critical point


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