ADOL GROWTH & DEV
ADOL GROWTH & DEV ED F 335
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Franz Larson on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ED F 335 at Clemson University taught by David Barrett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/214319/ed-f-335-clemson-university in Educational Foundations at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Ed F 335 TEST 2 Martha Kate Ivey Social Cognition 1 Perspective taking being able to be able to put yourself in someone else s shoes a Adolescence are better at this than children b Why did someone say that Try to put yourselfin someone else s mind and wonder why they said what they said i Allows us to be better at understanding someone else s thinking 2 Capable of understanding why society functions the way it does a Understand why we have social conventions such as waiting in line to buy a movie ticket Kids think it s just because our Mommy tells us to wait in line We understand that social rules emerge because we have social functions 9 Moral Development 0 Kohlberg 0 Very in uenced by Piaget I Piaget would ask young children about situations and if they were right or wrong I How we learn right from wrong 0 Kohlberg said we got through 3 stages of moral reasoning 1 Preconventional a Typical of kids in childhood under age 10 b Ideas about the rightness or wrongness of an event depends on whether your behavioral helps you or harms you c Thinking is restricted to thinking about helping or harming your family 2 Conventional a Rightness or wrongness about an action depends on what society says b Emerges around age 10 or 11 3 Postconventional a Thinking in the terms of underlying principles that society uses to come up with rules b Moral decision making based on abstract principles c Reasoning that some principle that may transcend a lot i quotWhat is the purpose of the law 0 Stages of Moral Development Handout 0 Level 1 Preconventional 1 PunishmentObedience 2 Instrumental 0 Level 2 Conventional 3 Social Approval 4 Conformity to Rules 0 Level 3 Postconventional 5 SocialContract 6 Universal Ethical Principles 0 3 Big Types of Support for Moral Development Theory 0 Longitudinal Studies I Studied at different ages 0 Crosscultural studies I Different societies go through the same thing 0 Is there a relationship between moral reasoning and moral behavior I Yes N ot moral Moral Implications with kids under 10 I Don not think like older people I Based things on what happens to them 0 Rewarded or punished o Selforiented type of approach I Need 1 Clean punishments and rules clear consequences 2 Need adult supervision Implications of older kids 0 Ask them what it means for something bad to happen 0 Don t threaten them Friendships Psychologists believe that friendships in adolescence are key ifpeople don t have friends my adolescence than that s a problem Friends show support and feel less isolated about physical changes 2 More con ict with parents at 10 or 11 years old turn to friends when you re annoyed with your parents friendships help us with growing independence and separation from parents 3 Fully able to appreciate friendships o What makes someone a friend 0 Children ideas and adolescence ideas of friendship is different hilrlhnnrl Arlan 9an Play association Trust Niceness Intimacy You could talk to them You will understand Same in adulthood Can t have that many close friends at one time Two Development Changes 1 Start to understand ourselves better we want friends who can understand us too 2 Friendships become more restricted exclusive Sex Differences in Friendship 0 Girls friendships are different than boys 0 Girls Friendships are shorter Can be deeper than boys More restricted More exclusive What is the function of girls friendships in contrast to boys 0 To have support and someone to talk to o Unconditional 0 Boys I Accept newcomers Not as deep friendships as girls Last long do not end abruptly Function 0 To make the boys tougher for independence 0 Play fight laughter o All the boys are in this together 0 Both boys and girls are looking for support 0 Both boys and girls need both types of support 0 Girls who are athletic have a different relationship with each other than with other girls 0 Kind of like a manly friendship 0 Boys tend to get friends that are girls when they are older 0 Trust in the girlfriend as a friend as someone to talk to 0 When they break up not only losing girlfriend or sexual partner but a best friend Positive Effects of Friendships Two Studies 1 Study of people with a best friend verse not a best friend a Wanted to look at the advantages of having a best friend b What is a best friend 1 ii Certain shared activities iii Significant duration c Two Big Differences i Kids with best friends tend to be more sensitive to them ii Have a higher social cognition iii Kids tend to be nicer when friends donate more share more d Cause and effect i First having friends helps you become more sensitive to others which makes you feel good so you share ii People with a big ego are less likely to have friends iii It s good to have friends research shows this 2 Who do we work better with in solving problems with friends or nonfriends a Answer Friends b Communication is more open more playful give orders Another study 0 Kids who are friendly solve the problem faster than kids who are not friends 0 Meaningful and challenging task Problematic Friendships friendships that go bad 0 When two people get together and do things that the friends wouldn t do when they were on their own Security Intimacygt All 3 of these things learn to be targeted on the same person Lust Starts to feel these things around 14 years old Sullivan said that as we move in adolescence we have a drive to have a relationship with the opposite sex The feeling can often feel overwhelming because we are integrating with the opposite sex Relationships at an early age is really about finding out about ones self By high school we have more meaningful relationships In early adulthood we start to be exclusive and want to be engaged Sullivan warns us not to rush to this age too soon At 15 you want to have a committed relationship but you aren t ready 0 An adult in a teenage body due to early sexual relationships Look to closer relationships to find meaning 60 years ago 0 Had a lot of extra time on their hands 0 Very poor and very rich would have sexual intercourse while the quotmiddlequot class would wait As a result of earlier sexual dating 15 or earlier tend to have a negative impact on development such as uncertainly about yourself or depression Peer Groups o Clique a small activity based group Crowd a large reputational based group groups people see you with and they often have names 0 Both types of peer groups small and large are much more important now then any other time of time in history 0 Friendships now help you figure out who you are 0 3 Reasons as to why 1 The idea that kids had to stay in school for mandatory secondary schooling can t drop out until around 16 years old a 100 years ago 16 years olds were not in school usually working or at home helping out b Age segregation around people your own age c WWI W11 2 By change in the family a Divorce b Industrialization c Fathers worked outside the home then mothers worked outside the home d Realization that peers need their friends 3 Technology a Part of feeling that you can always be connected to your friends by phones and computers b Margaret Mead quotOlder teach younger i Information started to move more quickly young people needed to depend more of their peers because their parents might not know what the kids are learning in school or about cell phones ii Now quotyounger teach older c As society becomes more technologically the younger teach the older how to use technology 0 Two Types of Peer Groups 1 Cliques 0 Friends are people you make contact with during the day hang out with each lunch with o By a psychologist Stages Boys B Girls G 1 Before adolescence up to 5th grade B G Separated by gender 2 Beginning of adolescence about 6th grade BG Cliques make contact 3 Early adolescence 7th or 8th grade BBGG Elite mixed gender clique 4 High school BGBG BG BG Mixed gender cliques 5 End of high school BGBGBGBGBGBGBGBGBG Breakdown of clique 0 Why do we have cliques 1 For recreation and fun 2 Context for real close relationships best friends relationships 3 Social learning how to relax 2 Crowds look at handout 0 Crown structure becomes these by the end of high school 1 More differentiated 2 Less hierarchical 3 More permeable 0 Why do we have crowds 1 Allows us to see ourselves from other people s eyes 2 Take that information and decide who we want to be 3 People are a lot nicer to people at the end of high school that at the beginning High School is better for 12th graders than 9th graders 0 Some high schools do not look wellrounded some schools are still very hierarchical o What keeps the school from being more differentiated I Teachers parents and students play a small role I Administrators play BIGGEST role 0 Have to be sure to have an even playing field 0 Some only publish certain sports or areas in the school 0 Knowing names of the students not just the ones who are high profile Test knows some of the in uences knows stages and that crowd structure Autonomy Attachment Theory 0 Human beings have two basic needs 1 Attachment protection security Bowlby thought that it was a need based from predators 2 Exploration a need for information stimulation and new experiences Can t branch out unless we know we are going to be safe we want to be independent but were afraid to branch out Bowlby a British psychologist Ainsworth an American psychologist In strange or new situations we want to have someone because we are scared but in familiar situations we think we can be independent Always feel needy in new situations independence is exciting but scary Humans are always dealing with two dimensions Separation con ict in adolescence 0 People who have studies separation but serious and minor realize that when we are first dealing with separation it leads to some worry that things are not going to be the same Stages 0 Preadolescence 5th or 6th grade 0 I Kids try to act grown up but at the same time try to act like children I Do not realize this I Accept independence and deny independence I EX A kid has a project and the dad says he will help for week and the kid says he has it under control then the night before the project is due the kids goes to the dad and tells him he hasn t even started yet 0 Wait until the last minute I Acts like this because they are afraid of selffailure o If have to depend completely on themselves they might fail completely I Teacher should have a checklist of different times the things in the project has to be done by should have consequences if they child doesn t get the checklist done on time I Kids need experience with failure 8th9th grade I Give parentteacher a hard time I Do things your parents don t want you to do I Try to show your parents you re not going to do as a child 0 Rebellious do anything your parents don t want you to do 0 Want your parents to not tolerate it o For attention I Want parents to make rules I Teachers might have with kids 0 Overreacting child takes every action as an insult 0 Under reacting When working with adolescence recognize the two feelings of independence and dependence Implications for Instruction 1 Student s need a secure and predictable environment Have a feeling as to how the classroom is needs to know what is going on 2 Kids will work for instruction If instruction isn t there they will work to have it When a substitute is there the kids go crazy because the rules and expectations aren t there 0 Provide structure before kids ask for it 3 Vertical and horizontal structure 0 Vertical 0 Has an order to as to what you re going to do next 1 0 Horizontal o No movement from topic to topic that shows any meaning 0 No goals 0 Will notice routine 4 Overstructure 0 Better to over structure than under structure 0 Ifyou understructure you will get complete chaos 0 Don t want to put kids in a situation that they don t learn anything 0 Over structuring will just bore the kids 5 Don t give kids mixed messages 0 They will get aggravated 0 Don t say not to do something and then let someone do it The more urgent is protection we don t want to leave our comfort zone Autonomy continued Emotional autonomy page 282 0 Whether you feel ready or not to be independent 0 Chart of Autonomy broken down into four different issues between 5th and 9th grade according to Steinberg o Nondepending ND I Example when a child makes a statement like quotMom I can do it myself I I am not dependant on you for help I Clearly more autonomous independent as we move from pre adolescence to adolescence o Deidealization D I No longer idealizing your parents or adults 0 Deidealization realizing that adults aren t perfect and that they don t know everything 0 Start to see their aws o Individuation I I Example Parents don t want you to see a particular friend anymore an older student would say it was their decision I Take responsibility for your own actions I Younger teens were more likely to say ok to their parents I Individuation the right to do what you want when you want child believing they have the right to their own decisions 0 Parents as People PP I Found that as kids more into 7th and 8th grade they seem to be less sensitive to their parents have more of an attitude I As we get older we become more sensitive to their parents in 20s look back and know what their parents did was helpful I 7th and 8th grade have a regression view parents and teachers as people to fear or people to get away with things I Why does attachment theory explain why we got through this 0 An attempt to kind ofbreak away from our parents ifwe go along with everything our parents say then we won t be able to be independent I By the time you are in college closer to your parents before your regression in 7th or 8th grade Behavioral autonomy 0 Whether you are really ready to be independence Conformity situations when you are going along with something that you don t really agree with but you do it anyways 0 Two different strings at different lengths 0 Have to give a choice to which string is longer 0 If classmates say that they are the same length more likely to say the same thing 0 Conformity is highest between ages 1114 0 16 years old still have a high rate of conformity Parents as People 0 Want to see tears 0 Goal is to make them feel ashamed for disappointing you ifit s serious Test know the term parents as people susceptibility to peer pressure is higher at 1114 kids are more likely to form to kids opinions Observations 1 Structure in the classroom 2 Breakdowns can hurt the class Page 288 and 318 Review for TEST Intimacy page 318 illustration has to do with who kids talk to when they are upset college youth talk much more to parents than kids in high school about something very personal Famil AS A SYSTEM C1 C2 Meets 5 Criteria 1 A thing 2 Has parts Example a mother and children a father and children a grandmother and children 3 Parts have roles In any family there are unwritten rules about who can do what and who can not do something External money making work for example the parents go out and work Internal work such as chores for example some families tell the children to do the chores but don t inforce them or the parents expect the kids to do the chores Discipline for example some families both parents enforce the rules the big brother the grandmother Health Education and Welfare Who took the parents to the doctor or made decisions about schools Rules for how people treat the others and who can talk to each other in a certain way 4 Parts are interdependent Events can cause change in a family Such as a baby being born or someone passing away New expectations Family accomplishes work Usually can tell if a family is doing something constructive Provides a healthy environment for you to grow and be healthy U39l A family is successful if the parents can help the children grow to be independent help train them Changes at Adolescence 1 More freedom 2 Want parents to know you don t need physical protection I need to be monitored 3 Don t want to be told to do everything Wants consultation on your own terms Predictions 1 Struggle for control that you didn t see in early adolescence Children are making a lot of demands 2 Con ict with be about very ordinary things Cleaning rooms going to gma s house 3 More interactions and arguments with the mothers rather than the fathers Study ofa family with Mother Father and 2 Sons Prepuberty to puberty Puberty to later puberty Mother and C9 Interrupts more C9 Interrupts more child M9 Interrupts more M9 Yields more Father and C9 Yields more child F9 Interrupts more Same as before M F M F C C M Demandin ness I I High Low Hi h I Authoritative I Indulgent I Low I Authoritarian I Indifferent I Responsiveness Types of Parenting page 129 Changes in Family Structure A Short Term Effects of Divorce 0 In the 1960s and 70s divorce rate increased O 3quotquot Women started working sexual morals general opening up of society 0 Behavior problems 0 Divorce rate is lower now under 40 0 Since the divorce rate is so high it is a possibility for any family ii Parents normally work together to raise the children Very often it s the father that leaves and the male who was the leader of the family The problem becomes structure because the father is gone After divorce it s very hard for the parents to provide for the child in an authoritative way 0 Parents are fighting so it is hard to be consistent From kids testing your parents more kids feel guilty and sad doing poorly in school want parents to provide structure 0 Boys tend to act more overtly dramatically in the short term than girls I Due to the father being gone Girls tend to be less surprised by divorce than boys do In short term divorce is destabilizing OO O O O O O Tquot min Studies show that the children have drug and alcohol abuse poor school performance problems with the opposite seX marriage problems for their future Divorce is higher on remarriages than first time marriages Children whose parents fight a lot all throughout childhood ifyou follow them you can see a lot of the same problems when they grow up I A study in England followed kids from age 7 to age 33 looked at degree of emotional problems 0 Picking up on fighting and the negative environment 0 Can t help their parents fighting gets the kids angry upset sad 0 There are long term effects of divorce more problems than kids whose parents never get divorced C Mediating Variables page 141 I An explanatory variable about why two things are connected I Something is affecting something which is affecting something else I Example When kids are raised in poverty less comfort with the school system don t have the same support for going through school Marital Con ict Causes ineffective parenting Adolescent Problems When parents are fighting it is hard to be stable It doesn t mean that in every situation that you re going to have these problems but statistically it will be harder because 1 If parents turn against each other they can turn against them D Effects on Girls E Effects of Steinberg Sleep er effects effects that don t start right away Tend to have more problems with their boyfriends more irtatious less trusting attitudes for males Earlier sexual activity not healthy relationships Earlier intense relationship are more likely to fail because you have greater reliance and have higher unreal expectations 0 Looking for a fatherfigure not a boyfriend relationship 0 Can t meet your need for security When there is a divorce our security need is activated Divorce on Bo s F Implications How should a teacher deal with their personal con icts when they go to work 0 Can t do anything differently 0 Can not let your kids know 0 Students should never know when you re in a bad mood 0 Do not let your students let their workbe affected by your personal life
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