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by: Marilie Bode


Marilie Bode
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Zeynep Taydas

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Zeynep Taydas
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marilie Bode on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PO SC 362 at Clemson University taught by Zeynep Taydas in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/214320/po-sc-362-clemson-university in Political Science at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 09/26/15
PO SC 362 Class Notes International Relations study of the interactions among the various actors that participate in global politics Actors in IR include state and nonstate actors IOs Relatively new emerged in the l9Lh century and increased magnitude after WWII o Allows states to deal with shared problems collectively 0 Various academic disciplines 0 Have political impact and significance on many issues Great that 300 10s and 6000 NGOs plus all of the MNCs The have an expanding and increasing impact on the world as it becomes more globalized History of 10s Really began in the l9Lh century In the 19111 century they have a very legalistic and descriptive approach with a focus on IGOs laws and framework but they proved ineffective in understanding the behavior and functions of IGOs 1960s7Focus shifted to organizational roles international processes and internal dynamics 1980s7focus shifts to international regimes Regimes Sets of implicit or explicit principles norms rules and decision making procedures around which actors expectations converge on a given issue Now includes MNCs and NGOs IOs ARE instruments of states The concept of a state is a relatively new concept and was designed by the treaty of Westphalia after the 30 years wars 1648 To be considered a state and have sovereignty you must have all of the following Territory Population Government Sovereignty A nation and a state are different For example there are Kurds who are a nation in the state of Iraq IGOs Members are states UN EU G8 There are different types who have different membership rules different competency and what they deal with Membership can be Global unrestricted or regional restricted Competency can be Comprehensive all issues are fair game or limited narrow and speci c topics Delegation of Power can be Intergovernmental between statesconsensusno loss of power or sovereignty or supranational there is an entity above the state and you have to give some power up as a state ROLESFUNCTIONS of IGOs Promote cooperation Facilitate international bargaining Procedures for rules and SOP resolve international disputes and problems Createmaintain international rulesprinciples based on common concerns Increase information available to other states and increase understanding and enhance predictability about policymaking processes However IGOs also constrict because they set national and international agendas and force actions Reasons for Growth of IGOs Increased global interdependence and globalization of problems Failures of state0centered system Efforts 0 small states to gain strength through joint action Post successes of IGOs NGOs Members are transnational groups and individuals Voluntary private organizations whose members are individuals that came together with a common purpose Need permission to operate in a country Financing can be done thru duesdonations and offer a channel of alternative political participation Provide assistance after disasters Are not always for the good Do not try to take from governments so that they can remain neutral MNCs are part of this group and their big thing is FDI foreign direct investment GLOBAL GOVERNANCE the sum of the many ways individuals and institutions public and private manage their common affairs it is a continuing process through which con icting or diverse interests may be accommodated and cooperative action may be taken it includes formal and informal arrangements that people and institutions have agreed to or perceived to be in their interests Global governance is made up of 1 International Law 2 IGOs 3 NGOs 4 International Regimes 5 Ad Hoc arrangements 6 Global conferences In global governance states are still the central actor but they do not act alone many times IGOs and international laws serve states IGOs depend on states for funding NGOs need approval of states to operate POWER MATTERS Hegemony shape the world and consolidate their in uence Others play a role as well Small states can ally G77 HISTORY OF IOs Traced back to Greek city states 9 Westphalia Treaty 1648 gave the modern idea of a state but even before this treaty states had trade relations and were important when these states interacted 9New European state system meant closer contact rivalries and competition 9 183911 century Enlightenment brought fresh ideas about states and 10s as well as international relations Kant s peace 7 1 Democratic nations 2 Economic interdependence 3 International Organizations 1911 century precursors to 10s Concert of Europe Congress of Vienna 1815 1853 Based on peaceful existence five powers of Europe Austria Britain France Prussia Russia Great Power Politics and Balance of Power Shifting alliances designed to prevent one nations from dominating after the Napoleonic wars Agreed to meet from time to time to discuss common problems Manifestation of rudimentary but growing sense of interdependence Hague Peace Conference 1899 1907 International peace conferences By product of political cooperation on technical matters Rhine River Commission One of the earliest international conferences concerned with the international system based on law and order Sovereign Equality smallmiddle powers participate not just Europe and all states are equally independent no matter of size or power Universality anyone and everyone that is a state can join Multilateral 39 39 1 used r J 39 mt and the 2quotd meeting had 44 states come and there was even large representation from Latin America The uni cation of Germany led to disturbances in the balance of power and this led to WWI which lead to the League of Nations In 1871 Germany was uni ed from 25 difference principalities and wanted colonies to expand its power and markets German territorial ambitions were a major cause of WWI Imperial rivalrynationalism are also 2 big causes of WWI After WWI Treaty of Versailles in 1919 was very hurtful to Germany and would lead to the sense of bitterness that would foster Hitler and the beginnings of WWII Paris Peace Conference Wilson s 14 points selfdetermination and creation of League of Nations Wilson s 14th Point A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike League Of Nations After WWI there were feelings of nationalism but also great feelings of hatred towards war The LoN was the first 20Lh century IGO to have universal membership US refused tojoin the LoN Based on two principles Territorial Integrity and political independence This included collective security 10 of the 26 articles in the charter were based on peace and security ARTICLE 10 Don t attack any members or there will be consequences ARTICLE 16 There will be collective sanctions against the aggressor this principle failed 3 Principle Organs 1 Council Chief organ and enforcer of sanctions settler of disputes and implementor of settlements 2 Assembly 3 Secretariat Unanimous Consent was required and led to the LoNs demise Original permanent members US UK France Italy Japan Germany Goined late in 1926 and USSR Goined later in 1934 One principle goal was the abolition of secret treaties and alliances Established two bodies Permanent court of International Justice Failed International Labor Organization Still exists IDEAS Old and Conservative Principle of sovereignty among member states Based on voluntary cooperation and had no teeth New and radical Permanent international global organization of a general political nature State security is community responsibility Period of 19301935 was one of challenge and uncertainty LoN was successful at first but then failed Manchuria Case 1931 Japan attacked Chinese Manchuria after minor skirmishes Council tried to secure a settlement Japan vetoed Sent inquiry team too slow to gather info Too little too late Japan withdrew soon after Ethiopia Case 1935 Italy Invades Ethiopia Italy dragged out process and even agreed to arbitration UK and France concerned with Germany and needed Italy as a buffer zone so they didn t want to make another enemy Said they wouldn t want to interfere in their Africa issues Sanctions were ineffective in the end Why did the League of Nations Fail Various and Combined factors 1 Technical and procedural problems Economic Depression Nationalism Key Players US didn t participate Failure to adhere to the principles Ambiguous and vague goals ONUIAUJN VVVVV Theories of 10s Realism Power politics Focus on acquisition maintenance and exercise of Power IR is struggle for power Mainly concerned with high politics Developed in reaction to idealism Popular in study of IR especially after WWII Historical Roots of Realism Thucydides and the Peloponnesian Wars Melian dialogue the strong do what they have to do and we accept what they have to do Machiavelli the prince the ends justify the means Hobbes The Leviathan the war against all the life of man is solitary poor nasty brutish short Modern Realism Hans Morgenthau Politics Among Nations Focuses on what the world is not what it should or ought to be IR is a struggle amongst selfinterested states for power and position under anarchy with each competing state pursuing its own national interests Realism is a pessimistic view of human nature The state of nature is war and con ict is inevitable Anarchy Survival and national security is the main concern national interest Zero Sum game Selfhelp system 7 cannot trust anyone and it s a lonely pursuit of power What matters is selfinterest not morality Neo realism Kenneth Waltz Theory of International Politics 1979 International politics is struggle for power but it is not due to human nature but the setup of the international system Structure is shaped by anarchy and the distribution capabilities among states International structure rather than state systems determines the outcome System level theory 10s are largely ineffective The system dictates maximization of power States care about relative gains and alliances shift quickly Institutions are arenas for pursuing power Liberalism History of Liberalism Grotus before Westphalia states need to obey law of naturenations Locke Humans are all essentially equal peace is natural certain inaleable rights government that interferes the least is best Kant Interdependence and democracy is important Neo Liberalism Stresses positive roles of 10s Prisoner s dilemma IOs reduce uncertainty under anarchy The United Nations The UN A global multipurpose IGO not world government of sovereign states Center for harmonizing the actions of the nations The UN system is a collection of all of its functions Member states have not empowered the UN to enforce its will on member states no supranationalism History of the UN The Road to San Fransisco Yalta Conference agreed on voting principles Dumbarton Oaks meetings US UK SU China UN Conference on 10s in San Fransisco The UN Charter was signed in June 1945 and UN came into being on October 24 1945 Atlantic Charter 1941 come to being for collective security and 26 nations signed the charter saying they were committed to the principles of the charter The UN is a Parliament of nations Membership is open to all peaceloving nations which accept the obligations of the current Charter and are willing and able to carry out these obligations UN Charter Chapter 1 is the purposed and principles Chapter 2 are the criteria for membership Chapter 3 describes organs and institutions Purposes of UN Maintain international peace and security Develop friendly relations among nations To cooperate in solving international economic social cultural and humanitarian problems Promote respect for human rights Center for harmonizing actions of the nations Millennium Develop Goals 1 Eradicate poverty and hunger 2 Universal primary education 3 Gender Equality 4 Reduce child mortality 5 Improve maternal health 6 Combat HIVAIDS malaria 7 Ensure environmental sustainability 8 Global partnership for development Security Council Responsibility for ensuring peace and security and deciding enforcement measures Primary organ of action To authorize force Unanimity Prestige of SC allows it to use the power of shame The effectiveness of the UN is measured by the SC General Assembly Another principle organ of the UN One country one vote Forum for multilateral negotiations Con NOT issue binding legislation recommendations happen with majority but are not enforceable Supervises and watches over all the parts of the UN large amount of oversight Functions Debates any issue Admits states Coordinates subsidiary bodies Elects members to special bodies Appoints judges to ICJ Approves budget Appoints Secretary General Now have the power of Uniting for Peace Resolution started in 1950 Functional Committees Uniting for Peace Resolution 1950 Cold War nothing could get done in the SC Says that GA can meet to make recommendations In the event that the SC can t maintain peace a measure can be taken by GA and they can make recommendations Started by US as a means against Soviet votes regarding Korean War GA can set agenda and bring light to any issue Has a moral voice Limitations nothing is binding Secretariat Executive branch of the UN Administration and management of the UN Neutral fulltime UN employees 9000 people Goal is to promote the goals of the UN Secretary General Ban KiMoon from South Korea Appointed by GA upon SCs recommendation Process is very political Duties of the Secretary General Help resolve international disputes A u 39 111 i r Keep the UN running smoothly Remain neutral ECOSOC Assists the GA in promoting international economic and social cooperation and developments Function To promote welfare for all people and coordinate economic and social programs of the UN ECOSOC has 54 members after 2 expansions The GA elects 18 each year for 3 year terms NGOs have consultative status and they are the link to civil society Promotes Higher standards of living full employment housing children women anti drugs human rights and development They decide by simple majority and that becomes a recommendation to the GA and the SC Trusteeship Council To oversee decolonization All have selfgovemance or independence and this mission has been ful lled Suspended operations in 1994 when Palau left as the last trust territory Formal elimination requires a charter revision Does the UN have power Military not really Multilateralism yes Negotiation yes Agenda setting yes Legitimacy yes Regional Organizations History After 1945 there was rapid growth in regional organizations Very diverse types of regional organizations Scope functions membership degree of integration geography Political Security peace democracy and human rights Economic Growth development trade goods and services Two competing trends regionalism and globalism Regionalism Europe is formal well developed and has a more dense concentration Asia is less formal less developed and less dense Regionalism sustained cooperation formal or informal among governments NGOs in three or more countries for mutual gain Mostly de ned on the basis of geographic proximity but you run into problems where does Europe end and Asia begin for EU membership Regional Organization a segment of the world bound together by a common set of objectives based on geographical cultural economic or political ties and possessing a formal structure speci ed in intergovernmental agreements Regionalism First step towards global coordination Integration is easier in a small region and differences can be accommodated easier in a smaller area Homogeneous interests traditions and values between proximal states World isn t ready to establish global authority Arguments for Regionalism l Permits sharper focus on local problems 2 Involves fewer actors and allows for decisions based on regional culture and practices 3 Greater support from the people of member states due to shared values 4 Greater efficiency due to shared culturevaluespractices 5 Lays the groundwork for a broader consensus Universalism Global problems are global not regional Regional efforts and resources aren t enough to solve major problems Regions are imprecise and impermanent Lead to rivalries and competition Arguments for Universalism 1 More appropriate means for preserving peace because a war anywhere in the world threatens to engulf us all 2 More effective pooling of resources so that richer regions can help poorer ones 3 Consensus of humankind based on global principles 4 Most effective use of resources when dealing with global problems Factors driving regionalism Political Identity internal and external threats domestic policies leadership Economic Interdependence benefits of large markets Fvomnlns of Regional 0 NATO Membership 26 Established 1949 Largest most highly organized militarysecurity alliance One against all principle Goal Safeguard freedom and security and protect rights of countries and citizens Organization of American States Membership 35 Established 1948 Goal Peace and Justice promote solidarity Multipurpose organization Also collective defense 4 n I MERCOSUR Membership 5 Brazil Argentina Uruguay Venezuela Paraguay Established 1991 Regional trade agreement to promote free trade ease movement of goods people and serv1ces African Union Membership 53 Established OAU in 1963 then renamed African Union in 2002 Goal Basically everything that the EU is doing Association of Southeast Asian Nations Membership 10 Southeast Asian nations Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam Established 1967 ASEAN way noninterference consensus nonuse of force nonconfrontation Very loose and informal organization Goals Accelerate economic growth social progress cultural development It is a fair trade agreement AsiaPacific Economic Cooperation Membership 21 Pacific Rim countries Established 1989 Goal Free trade and increased investment Arab League Membership 22 Arab states Established 1945 Goal To promote closer ties between Arab nations and safeguard independence and sovereignty


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