COMMERCIAL PRINTING G C 440
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This 50 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Toni O'Kon on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to G C 440 at Clemson University taught by Eric Weisenmiller in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see /class/214322/g-c-440-clemson-university in Graphic Communications at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
1 Heidelberg DI a b O Fquot O Equot 93 Know the presentation points not necessarily the actual handson demo but review the movie found at http wwwpresstekoom ashDIdemohtml What makes it a hybrid press i Cross between conventional lithographic press and the digital press ii Images digitally on the press iii Prints from waterless plates or conventional plates onto offset blanket and then to the press sheet What does DI stand for i Direct Image 9 trademark of Presstek Common run lengths Where is the sweet spot i Sweet Spot runs of 250 to 10000 pro tably on widerange of substrates ii Feed paper into press of Quickmaster DI with its shorter dimension rst DI Plate technology i The oleophobic part ofthe waterless DI plate consists of silicon ii Aluminum and polyester are alternatives to the silicon Waterless inks i You can run waterless ink in a conventional press but you can t run conventional ink in a waterless press ii Almost like gravure iii Problem with soupiness of ink when invented bc heat was causing it iv Japanese learned that cooling the rollers internally helped sensitive temp variable of the ink Advantages of Waterless Offset i Better consistency throughout the runs i Higher densities greater tonal range i Better ink holdout Elimination of ink and water balance variable yields reduced running time amp waste Better register control Elimination of paper stretch caused by fountain solution Elimination of hazardous VOCs amp waste water viii Higher line screens 300800 lpi for better image detail sharper dots 39X Increases print contrast X Make ready is cut in half i Higher tack inks Xii Registers itself lt Slt lt N h Press Testing of the DI i The 3 CS of Color Repro in effect 1 Calibration 2 Characterization 3 Conversion Basics of Color a Color Theory The Basic Components Color SeparationManaganent pp 6998 261271 b Basic Process Color Theory C 1 2 Dominant inks provide the objects color The 3rd ink provides the shape amp detail A skeleton black provides shadow detail amp neutral density Additive amp subtractive color theory amp their interaction w one another i How we see colors printed on a sheet is governed by the interaction between the Additive amp Subtractive Theories ii Additive Color System 1 Uses colored lights RGB 2 Mix different amount of RGB to produce other colors 3 4 Equal amounts of RGB produce White Light EX TV amp Spot lights at a concert iii Additive Color Mixtures l 2 3 4 Red Blue Magenta Blue Green Cyan Red Green 1 clluu Red Blue Green White iv Subtractive Color System v Subtractive Color Mixtures 2 3 4 5 wsgwsnaszvw Uses colorants CMY lVIix different amounts of CMY to produce other colors Equal amounts of CMY produce Black in theory In Reality equal amounts 0 f CMY really print dark brown a This happens because i Pigments are not pure ii Paper is not truly white EX filters amp ink Cum N39clluu Green Magenta yun Blue Magenta clln m Red Cyan Magenta xllnu Black Remember I drink my RC cola down e l minus in my GM truck M minus G vi Printers use cyan magenta amp yellow to subtract one of the additive colors These inks are just 3 Color perception a Factors that affect color perception i Light Source ii iii iv vii 2 3 Object l 2 2 Sex male chemical lters that abs orb different wavelengths Type of illuminant Time of day Human eye will always adapt to the ambient light source amp see it as neutral white adjusting the perception of any colors viewed under it Substrate Surround Observer physiological factors 1 Color amp density measurements play important roles in the process control of color reproduction but they can t replace the human observer for nal assessment of the color quality of complex images Human perception is not consistent from person to person or female EX females have fewer color de ciencies than men 39 Color Vision EX color blind Eye Fatigue 1 Cones located on the back of the eye are sensitive to red green and blue wavelengths 4 Filters and how they work a Filter absorbs other light and re ects its color 6 5 2 Measurement i EX Blue filter absorbs red and green light and passes blue ii EX Cyan lter absorbs red and passes green and blue b Inks are lters i We are not printing color We are printing anti color The ink color is blocking light rays from re ecting 9 allowing for the rays that make up the wanted ink color to re ect quot a V5 sycvh 1 r a Spectrophotometer 1 Color measuring instrument ii Objective observer Avoids metamerism Metamerism appear the same in one lighting position but different in other lighting position like wearing 2 different socks blue amp black iii Measures chromatic stimulus colors we sense in our eyes iv Represents stimulus using interpretation models Colorimeteric Data 2 v Lab 1 L Lightness Channel 2 A Green 7 Red Axis 3 B Blue 7 Yellow Axis vi Spectral Re ectance Curves 1 Plot of re ectivity as a function of wavelength Densitometer i In fourcolor process printing it is especially important that the cyan magenta amp yellow densities are in balance or the color hue of the red green blue 2 color overprints will shift ii Why measure density In pressroom solid patches of each ink are printed amp measured The density values indicate to the press operator whether the amount of ink should increase or decrease iii Density is a logarithmic function expressed in base 10 100 00D 10 10D 1 20D iv Density is the measure of re ectance Dimensions of common color Models a Lab HSL CMYK RGB i Lab 1 L Lightness Channel luminance values 2 A Green7 Red Axis can have amp values B Blue 7 Yellow Axis can have amp values ii HSL l H Hue a Describing color 2 S Saturation a Chroma vividness richness amp purity of color 3 L Lightness iii CMYK l Percentages of Cyan Magenta Yellow amp Black 2 Fourcolor process printing 3 We convert from RGB to create CMYK process separations 4 All 4 color channels are separate grayscale images 5 CMYK tint builds or screen combinations 1 R Red 2 G Green 3 B Blue b Digital ranges of above color models i LAB 127 to 128 ii HSL don t need to know iii CMYK 0 to 100 iv RGB 0 to 255 7 Requirements of Color Reproduction a Tone Control Reproduction i How many tones can we produce within a range ii Objective to achieve a onetoone rendition of the tints amp shades seen in the original iii Refers to the lightness amp darkness of the highlights midtones amp shadow areas iv Adjust levels b Detail enhancement i Techniques 1 May be accomplished by applying unsharp mask using a third party extension or by varying GCWUCG levels or using special effect options in Photoshop 2 Be careful not to overdo effects or you might lose information 3 Unsharp masking c Color correction i Where when how ii Worse place to color correct is on press iii Color correct when RGB because has larger gamut than CMYK iv Necessary to account for the deficiencies in the inks amp substrates that we print on v EX magenta absorbs some blue lights it s not supposed to Yellow is blue light absorber To correct we reduce the amount of yellow printing in areas with magenta in them resulting in absorbing only the required amount of blue vi Why do you color correct Inconsistencies in ink Color cast in picture Substrate Deficiencies in scanner Customer needs Adjust for printing systems 7 Lighting during shooting vii Adjust hue and saturation to avoid gamut warning d Gray balanceConversion i Achieving neutrality ii The ability to reproduce a grayscale without a cast or overall hue iii Theoretically equal parts of CMY iv Actually hue error requires different amp unknown percentages of each color v Adjust curves 99595 8 Color Separation RGB to CMYK conversion a File characteristics b Photoshop settings profiles 9 Metamerism a Metamerism metamerism failure is observed when 2 color samples appear to match under a particular light source amp then don t match under a light source w a different spectral power distribution b Use purple rhem light indicator stickers that shows stripes of diff color in bad light c Blue amp black sock story looks like wearing same color socks in one light but realize you are when you get into diff light 10 GCR a Gray Component Replacement b Special separating method in digital images whereby the color combinations common gray components ie combined equal amounts of cyan magenta amp yellow are replaced w black This gives a smaller overall volume of color amp reduces problems of color cast due to vibrations in the printing press You can vary the levels of GCR so that you only substitute some of the gray component w black Purpose of GCR is to reduce the total amount of ink used wout changing the color This makes it easier to reach gray balance in print amp thereby get a more even print quality e GCR conversions also result in i Fewer problems w smudging in the printing press bc total amount of ink in press is reduced ii More accurate colors using low maximum ink coverage 11 Spot vs Process Color a Spot Color i Printing inks in special colors e g in the Pantone Matching System Generally used as complement to black or to achieve a precise color which 4color inks can t provide Mixed using a recipe ii Pantone Matching System made up of 14 basic colors that mix together to form lots of other colors iii Commonly used in corporate logos amp identity programs amp in l or 2colorjobs iv When do you use spot colors 1 Only want to use 1 or 2 colors in printed product 9 2 Want to use colored text w out risk of misregistration 3 Imp certain color is exactly right logo tinted area 4 Want to use colors like gold silver uorescent or colors that r more saturated than 4color combos can manage 5 Want to have certain color printed w out rasters 6 Total color coverage is limited in print b Process Color i Colors used for printing usually CMYK also called 4color process ii To reproduce a color image a file is separated into 4 diff colors CMYK When printed on paper original image is recreated iii Process colors are represented as percentages of cyan magenta yellow amp black Varying the percentages offers thousands or color possibilities iv When do you use process colors 1 Going to print 4color images 2 Going to use more that 2 colors 12 What is a color pro le 13 Paper Paper amp Ink Chapter 08 a What is paper made of i Primary ingredient on paper is cellulose fibers ii Can come from trees cotton grassshrubs bamboo iii Paper sizing adds to the water resistance of the paper iv Bleaching agents V Optical brighteners Chemicals that absorb light in the UV amp violet region of the electromagnetic spectrum amp reemit light in the blue region b Handling storage transport of paper i Effects of humidity 1 Moisture a Wavy Edge b Tight Edge c Moisture enters stack of paper though edges rst ii Acclimation to pressroom conditions 1 2436 hours but could vary from 1072 2 Not day of pressrun iii Dimensional stability iv Basics of the manufacturing process G Basic Sheet sizes i US paper industry s measurements of paper density amp weight are based on traditional sheet sizes which vary w paper type ii These standard sheet speci cations have persisted even though in many cases sheets of those sizes are no longer manufactured iii Bond Text Index Cover 1 Bond amp ledger 17 X 22 computer paper a Doesn t account for bleeds 2 TextBooldOffset 25 X 38 a Designed for letterpress will not print w an offset process Cover 20 X 26 IndeX 255 X 305 Tag 24 X 36 6 Bristol 225 X 285 d Basis Weight i Basic Weight standard set for referring to the different papers win a classification ii Basis Weight weight of 500 sheets ofthe Basic Size Sheet for that class ofpaper iii North American Metric 1 Paper Weight Specification a gm2 grams per meter squared the metric equivalent of the basis weight but it isn t dependent on standard sheet size 2 Common sheet sizes of paper in US amp Canada in inches a Letter size 85 X 11 b Tabloid 11 X 17 c Broadsheet 17 X 22 e Paper math calculations i How many parent sheets of 23 X 35 paper would Ineed to allow for 500 press sheets of 115 X 175 1 175 X 2 35115 X 2 23 9 4 press sheets from 1 parent sheet 9 5004 125 parent sheets ii If the paper is 005 thick how tall of a stack should you select from the parent skid 1 125 X 005 625 iii How is paper weight determined 1 MWeight a Weight of 1000 sheets ofpaper any size P39er length X width X basis weight of given sheet X 2 of square inches in the basic sheet size Multiply by 2 because a ream in only 500 sheets iv EX What is the M weight for 35 X 45 7 70 Offset paper 35 X 45 X 70 f Paper grain i Howwhere is it formed Grain direction is formed in the direction of the wire on the paper making machine Grain direction is created at the front end of the paper making machine Run sheet grain long Duplicator grain long runs perpendicular to press cylinders Presses grain long nms parallel to press cylinders Figure out grain direction by tearing amp comparing roughness of edges ii How does it impact a cutting plan 1 The sheet has to be run grain long 9 this determines the cutting plan bc you have to factor in the side of the sheet that is going to be fed rst into the press 2 Always look at the grain direction needs of the finished piece 14 Watermarks howwhy are they createdused a Why 7 mwswwe i Security ii Presti e iii Advertisement b ow i Etched wire on the Dandy Roller helps to form raw bers 15 What are the important characteristics to consider when choosing paper a Runability i How well will paper feeds through the press the 1St time andthe 2nd 3rd amp 4th time Printability i Subjective ability to transfer image w faithful reproduction Amount 9 Slze Cost Waste wnnpp 16 Brightness vs Whiteness Whiteness i Whiteness ofpaper is the color balance ofpaper what cast of light does the paper have color ii Takes more than 1 reading to determine whiteness iii Can nd out with a forrnu a b Brightness i Intensity of colors also called luminance How light or dark an image is ii The percentage of re ectance of light iii Take one reading to determine brightness brightness meter reads 1 distinct wavelength of 11ght 17 Types characteristics a SpecifyingPaper i ClassesCategories bond offset index cover ii Weight color texture nish size grain direction brightness basis weight gmz quantity roll or sheet iii Coatings gloss dull matte in order from shiniest to dullest iv Coated calendered or uncalendered l Calendered vs Uncalendered a Paper bers form peaks amp valleys b Density changes bc of ink lm thickness c Calendaring smooths irons out the bers d Coating made of clay helps to smooth or add gloss V Coated vs Uncoated l Coated colored ink pigment sits on top of the sheet ink holdoutretained ink gloss amp measures w a gloss meter a Gloss measures 55 or higher b Dull measures 2154 c Matte measures 020 2 Uncoated can be smooth or textures glare free for reading stronger and more opaque 3 Calendered 4 Textured b Caliper i AKA Thickness ii Measured w Bench Micrometer in thousands of an inch iii How is it expressed numerically Verbally l Offset papers range from 002 to 008 a 2 point stock 2 Usually don t say point for 001 stock Brightness d Opacity i Ability to see through the paper e Formation i Pattern of wood bers ii Tight or Loose O 18 Press testing Press Testing amp Process Control pp 364374 3 Assess the known state of a Press System b Used in 440 to determine goal densities how much ink to put down on paper i Goal Densities can determine with GRACOL standards chart or through running range of densities during press test 9 run ink at unreasonably high density number then run w ink off at very low density number to have range then work way to middle ranges of density Use these numbers along with print contrast to get an optimized density for a speci c job ii If ink wet then will read w higher meter than if ink was dry 0 Measurement information creates feedback loop for image optimization d Feedback Loop If you can measure it you can control it 19 Why do we press test How o en a Why i To calibrate press performance win a speci c work ow Calibrate is putting something in a known state ii To determine amp therefore adjust the quality parameters that can be expected from the press amp materials used b How Often i Standard time to run press test is l2 months ii Depends on Material changes Climate changes Customer changes Material lifespan durations Drift expectations overtime a Drift how much machine or equipment get out of wack over time 20 Materials Speci cation paper ink a Substrate Type i Paper Grades 1 Grades 1amp2 glossdullmatte coates 2 Premium text amp cover 3 Grade 3 publication a EX National Geographic 4 Grade 5 publication a EX Newsweek Magazine 5 Uncoated a SuperCalAB 6 Newsprint a Not on GRACOL standards ii Paper LAB Whiteness color cast on paper 1 Solid Lab Value iii Line Screen LPI b Solid Ink Density SID c Tone Value Increase TVI i Optical Dot Gain ii Mechanical Dot Gain d Print Contrast 21 Appropriate line screen frequency a LPI ranges on GRACOL b Graph of LPI is a graphed measurement of dot gain i The x axis shows the wanted density ii The y axis shows the dot gain iii Add the y and x axis together where curve hits in order to get final density with dot gain included c Reasonable amount of dot gain for reading on coasted papers is 1828 d Dot Gain From impression setting on press packing running speed on press color of ink itself type of ink e More dot gain is experienced w finer line screens V39HeP NH 22 Solid ink density SID How do we determine a Solid Ink Density i With our substrate a good print contrast number to look for in the black is whenever the SID is between 16 and 18 ii As ink densities rise the contrast also rises with a quotstandard ink density highest contrast is achieved when overinking begins the dots tend to gain and the contrast decreases again 23 quotPrint contrast What is it Why and how it is computed a Print Contrast indicates an imaging system s proof or print ability to hold open the shadow areas while still maintaining high solid ink density i Hold open hold off the effects of dot gain or compensate for them b Print contrast is a measure of the quality of printed screens in the 3 tones c PC SID 7 75 tint density X 100 SID i Goal 17 SID and 41 print contrast 24 Total Area Coverage TAC 25 Dot gain TVI compensation curve a Tonal Value Increase TVI formerly known as Dot Gain the re ection halftone percentage measured on a printed sample minus the original halftone percentage le value that produces it b Mechanical vs Optical dot gain i Always will be some sort of dot gain ii Mechanical Occurs as a result of platemaking or press operations that cause the geometry of the dot to change iii Optical Occurs when light is trapped under dots and thus the dot appear optically larger 26 Be familiar with the GRACoL speci cations a General Requirements for Applications in Commercial offset Lithography b A comprehensive set of guidelines for planning and processing work for printers c Pertains to all offset lithographic processes and print applications except those covered by SNAP and SWOP two other industry standards for specific types of printing d SWOP Specifications for Web Offset Publications e SNAP Specifications for NonHeatset Advertising Printing 27 G7 A Calibration Technique a Based on gray balance b G7 technique diff that previous GRACoL calibration methods bc it relies on LAB values rather than just densities and TVI c G7 grayscale and 7 ISO inks CMYK amp RGB fall 7 colors have ISO standards in LAB values d Can be used for any print process e Used as a way to gray balance image 9 to create standard across board so that it is done correctly f Takes guess work out of color 28 Offset Presses a Press feeding and registration i study your notes from the paper cutting and feeder demo ii streamfed vs successive fed 1 streamfed 2 successive fed iii the purpose ofthe side guide iv three point register b packing for plate and blanket amount and purpose i plate packing is used to underlay a press blanket or palte to bring the surface to the desired height ii squeeze 004 006 l on MOZ we build the blanket bearer height and build palte to 004 over bearer height iii c dampening system options i continuous integrated ii ducted d Fluid measurement i 128 oz 1 gallon ii 64 oz 12 gal iii 32 oz 1 quart iv 16 oz 1 pint V 8 oz 1 cup e dampening solution i components 1 water 2 acid 3 gum eliminate plate roller sensitivityoxidation a asphaltum gum etch 7 dampening rollers on the MOZ 4 oleophilicoleophobic 5 aquaphilic aquaphobic ii conductivity f Printing Units g Blankets i Parts carcass polyester liquid resistant layer rubber face ii Blankets purpose parts blanket care cast vs buff 1 Smooth 2 Buff 3 Conventional 4 Compressible 5 Cast vs buff a Cast smooth 002 b Buff textured to carry more ink 29 Press troubleshooting For example Symptoms and causes of slur and other print quality defects a Know the major causeandeffect relationships of print problems covered on the You Gotta Problem presentation Completing the i Makereadies lack of focus on pre makeready activities 1 Mechanical problems reduce productivity and profitability 2 Solutions a ii Slur sheet register transfer abnormal over impression improper squeeze Solutions torque blanket evenly across the width of the cylinder adjust impression setting repack plateblanket iii b SHOTs simulator exercise prior to the exam is advisable 1 What is the GC Mission Statement a To develop dedicated practical problem solving people for the printing publishing imaging packaging and allied industries 2 What is the end product of this class a The students 3 Lab safety a What are the 4 most important safety rules when you are on the press i Nothing on top of the press ii Never take a rag to a moving press iii Always know where your partner s hands are iv No cell phones on your person working on the press b Appropriate dress and conduct in the pressroom i c The most dangerous time for the press operator i During plate mounting 4 Principles of Design 3 Contrast i Provides emphasis and catches the eye ii Directs the movement of the eye iii What creates contrast Color size shape texture etc b Rhythm i Visual elements ow in a natural pattern ii Sometimes based upon the target culture 0 Proportion i Appropriate size relationships between visual elements d Unity i The inclusion andor placement of visual elements so that they don t clash with one another or the overall tone theme or message ii All visual elements should support each other e Balance i Provides emphasis and catches the eye ii Employs the use of distribution of visual elements within a layout to create a pleasing effect 1 Formal 2 Informal 7 relies on conceptual balance f Typographic design handout 1 What is the difference between a font and a typeface 1 Font 2 Typeface ii Identify Common design mistakes 1 iii how is the choice of a typeface important 1 The way something is presented defines how we react to it 5 layout and Prepress tools a What are they and what purpose do they serve i Margins bleeds column guides grids 1 Create spatial consistency adds subconscious order b Layout plan i Thumbnail 1 Small very quick idea sketches Generally pencil on plain white paper fastest route from the brain Basic Communication of ideas Never on computer The more the better 6 Not much detail ii Mechanicals 1 Computer generated design SIM59 All copy tting complete Print Marks and Bleeds Photos FPO Measurements correct Don t print separations Critiques Markups NQP HeP N c Risky Design Choices i What is important to look for when creating ateXt wrap 1 Don t make the sentences break up over an image or makes the reading ow not easy to follow ii Know the risks involved with bleed allowance transparencies crossovers reverses large solids gamut l Bleed 125 in a One edge bleeds are often interpreted as a mistake 2 Large solids a Use rich black to bolster color of solids when they are used in 2 and 4 color printing Too much ink coverage causes difficulties in maintaining consistency mechanical ghosting etc Fquot 3 Gamut a CMYK CMYKOG Pantoneinot all have identical palettes b Gradients have problems with banding caused by limitations of the printing process 4 Crossovers a Difficult to line up images lines colors when they run across signatures 5 Transparencies a difficult to RIP and sometimes difficult to print i examples vignettes drop shadows opacity changes etc ii These present potential problems because of issues with the appearance ofbounding boxes iii Paragraph styles 1 you make changes to the quotsubheadquot style or the quotsidebarquot style then have the software automatically apply these styles throughout the document Chances are you re going to be making changes and the small amount of time it takes to identify the individual elements of your document and set up initial styles will be made up quickly as you repeatedly try out new fonts and alignments 2 6 Imaging and Pre ighting a Know what is important about creating a responsible le b Be able to do the following i Create a digital imaging checklist l 8995 Create order Improve quality Help communication and review Allow for continuous improvement Ensure consistency Reduce errors Improves productivity ii What makes an image suitable for production 1 Capture good plentiful image data a Remember the GIGO principle b Consider the Photographic Lighting c Quality of the input device d Deliberate processingcorrectionenhancement i Handling poor originals ii Look for detail iii Retain as much image data as possible iii What are the advantages and disadvantages of the RAW format 1 2 Advantages a No image compression Large file sizes c Sharpness contrast resolution settings can be made during processing independently for each image or more quickly for all imported images Retains full range of image data captured by the camera Tonal correction white balance and color interpretation are nondestructive Noise reduction and sharpening are customizable Fquot rm Disadvantage a Require an additional processing step to be viewed or used in a work ow iv Know the appropriate software applications for specific layout work ow and imaging functions 1 InDesign Illustrator Photoshop etc v Know how to install embed fonts 1 Installation a They are portable 2 Embedding into PDF 3 Converting to outlines V viii a For display text b NOT for body text i Stroke problems Destructive vs nondestructive image editing 1 Tonal correction white balance and color interpretation are non destructive RAW vs tonal correction white balance and color interpretation are left to be done in Photoshop This is destructive to the image JPEG What tools can be used to pre ight les 1 Manual checklists InDesign pro les Acrobat pro les EnFocusPitstops BuiltIn work ow tools How do we automate the pre ighting process 1 Batch Processing 2 Droplets 3 Work ow software 4 Remotesoft proo ng 5 Hot Folders 6 WebtoPrint technologies How do we manually pre ight les 1 Separation Preview 2 Ink Manager 3 Advanced ObjectType Touchup Tools Why are some pre ight points designed to indicate risky design choices 1 So that there are no problems when it comes to printing and all problems that could come up will be found early 7 Offset press basics a Basic concept of litho iii lt Image carrier design is drawn with greasy crayon or ink on a at limestone slab to which the crayon adheres Dampening stone is moistened with water which is absorbed by parts of the stone not covered by grease Inking using a roller greasy ink is applied to the stone ink adheres only to the drawing and is repelled by the wet parts of the stone Impression print is made by pressing paper against eh inked stone drawing Drying paper and ink are allowed to dry b Offset litho markets ii39 Commercial printing 1 Direct Direct Mail Announcements Brochures Posters Booklets Stationery Business Forms Books Magazines Business Forms Quick printing 1 Brochures Business Cards Forms Envelopes Pads Runs of 5000 or less Advertising amp Promotional l Catalogs Directories Legalsamp Financials Annual Reports Package Printing 1 Labels Ca1tons Boxes Paperboard c Press tech trends Integrated computer work ow 1 Hybrid capabilities 2 Mixing processes digital exo rotary screen etc Increased inking capability 1 Auto ink dispensing and ink zoning 2 Larger form rollers a Prevent ghosting and roller starvation b Anilox fountain roller engraved iii Improved automation and controls 1 Cleaning loading temperature controls 2 Closedloop color d If you then your image will print straight and centered on the sheet i register Process control i 7 items to check Is it straight to the lead edge of the press sheet Is it printing in the same place lead to tail Is it printing in the same place left to right Is it printing in the right place lead to tail Is it printing in the right place left to right Is the impression set correctly Are the ink and water balanced ii cylinder marks 1 Advantages e l 8995 a b 9 Before during and after 7 ensures consistency After first cut first cut register comer guide comer the cylinder marks should be located in the back left comer Side to side Ensures that you re printing in the right place and same place You must know the press sheet size in order to place the cylinder marks accurately Three ways to add cylinder marks 39 imposition software or page layout software manually mask a scribed piece of film scratch the plate 2 problems with this could hurt the blanket a burr can slit the blanket or rollers i39 ii39 b Ib I iii registervs fit backup register positioning of the sheet relative to the image on the blanket 1 06 3 1 helps determine same p11 as Register is the overall agreement in the position and alignment of printing details on a press sheet Also The proper positioning of the sheet with respect to the image on the blanket Once square the plate image can be moved by the operator on the y both circumfrenciallyamp laterally 2 fit juxtaposition of all image elements in the printing area without regard to the sheet margin a b colors lining up With ea eh other in the rightplace on the sheet the ability of film to be registered during stripping and assembly i good fit means that all images register to other film for the same job 3 backup when printing on the back side make sure the images line up fronttoback a straight to lead edge is not necessarily as important as straight to each other when you are examining iv what is density 1 Measurement of the tonal range in a particular base material 2 What does it basically tell the press operator a The tonal range of color print on a certain kind of paper or the tonal range of original slide V How do you assure the job will print straight and centered when running through the press 1 Strip imposition 2 Mount plates 3 Cut paper 4 Feed press resister a Guide comer b Cylinder marks 5 Causes of a Job Not Printing Square Strippingian operator sensitive condition Digital Template Platingipunched crooked ats slipped off of the pins Mountingianother operator sensitive condition Cutting and Feeding paperipaper notjogged well head stops angled feed and registration table not set up properly vi How do you ensure consistency in register ink coverage dampening 1 Regster a paper is cut and fed correctly b bolts are all tightened on plates C Registration Table 39 Side guides purpose is to center the sheet before its printed i1 Head stops control the angle of the sheet or the squareness as it is fed into the press prior to printing angle no more than 116 in the opposite direction from the other Helps control the sheet iv Drive wheels Tail wheels Controlling sheet centering using drive wheels to box in the sheet v Double sheet detector 1 Optical 2 Mechanical 3 Don t want to run 2 sheets into the press bc a Don t want to print blanks or crush the blanket FL 0quotm 2 Ink Coverage a keys are opened closed enough b ductor stroke good i lower settinglarger stroke faster settingsmaller stroke c check with densitometer 3 Dampening a look for scumming b streaking ink on paper if too much 0 don t want Chemical ghostingblinding on plate d want to use enough to c ear plate f Difference between a press and duplicator i Formatsize ii others that are more speci ci 1 ccuracy ofthe controls 39des Side guide i Centers paper before printing b Impression c Headstops d More control over angling and moving plates 2 ofrollers a There are many more rollers in a press than a duplicator w Es n s Milling amp chilling Thixotmpy 1 the longer the uid undergoes sheer stress the lower its yiscosi b A large press typically has 4 form rollers where a duplicator has 2 c ore op 39ons in the dampening system 3 Feed 39le 1 Air blast at tail of sheet b Stream fee 39n c Registration accura 4 Complexity ofthe dampening system 5 S eed s Perfectin g a printing on both sides ofthe sheet with one pass through press g Press con guration i Web vssheetfed Swawunulei shshm ai Blankevmmallm quot Hingelift lrmilmllmWLDHHIHMHA awn ChHhuKls 17 1 H j jm if 7 i H mat lezl naud Fomav Images CoumsoiHmmmctghWhymmmmwuzam ii MOZ diagram M02 48 x 65 cm 19 x 25391 2 MOZF 48 x 65 cm 19 x 2572 h Press feed1ngs and registration i Stream fed vs successive fed 1 Stream layered sheets 2 Successive one at atime staggered ii Purpose ofthe side pull guide 1 Centers paper before printing iii Three point registration 1 Ensures that double sided prints Will be properly registered from front to back and that the registration in the off press processing machines will be consistent as well j flt 1391u1 quot iw ii Conductivity 1 Ability of the solution to conduct electricity k Printing units i Ink selection drying tack 1 Oil based dries by absorption and oxidation 2 Rubber base dries by absorption LA UV cured by UV light Sublimation ink printed to paper then placed on fabric heated and ink turns into a gas and dries Considerations a Lightfastness b Opacity i Transparent ii Opaque c Color resistance to fade resistance to products wettability texture hardness etc 4 V39 ii How do you measure ink tack 1 Measure of the force to split lm into 2 2 Conventional instruments measure force exerted iii How do you determine tack run sequence 1 CMYK iV Why does an offset press require so many rollers in the ink train 1 So theres more options for dampening system What does a doctor roller do 1 Roller on a printing press that contacts both the ink fountain roller and the print drum roller transporting ink from the fountain to the distributing system lt Vi Anicolor Inking unit 1 Parts quotHandy llquot ink supply system Two rider rollers help you to cre ate the ideal emulsion of ink and dampening solution Also required for washing the inking unit Funnabsized individual tamper alure control of the screen roller or precise ink metering ian chamber blade consisting of an ink chamber and blade fills the screen roller with ink Format sized lnking form roller imprinting with 39 39 39 5 t u l Alculor continuous Flute cylinder I dampening system Blanket Cylinder 2 Bene ts Extremely cost effective even for short runs Startup waste cut by up to 90 Up to 25 capacity increase Use of commercially available plates and inks Highest printing quality Shortest makeready times quot19 FL 9quot vii Ink and water balance 1 How much ink dampening is required a Enough to clean the plate but not too much water so you can avoid slinging 2 What makes water wetter a Alcohol and substitutes 3 Conductivity of fountain solution a What does it indicate i Conductivity l 1500 over water 100 in our lab carries the electrical charge b How is it measured i Micromhos measure flow of electricity or conductivity 1 DeliveryTypes m Clean up 7 b quot1 Fquot 0 3 1 Raster vs vector i Raster in bits broken up ii Vector straight lines t V M M m r with w r Duotones types curves purpose terminology i Grayscale image printed with two printing inks instaed of one ii Enhance original detail create a mood DoubleDot halftone i What is it 1 Black on black black on gray black on brown ii How is it produced 1 2 hits of black will increase the range of the photo Ghost halftone i Maximum shadow value 1 40 ii Tone curve 1 Add detail to important portions of image HDR i What is a suitable image to photograph using HDR techniques Why 1 Outside images are great images to use to get every color 2 Use it in areas that have a wide range of colors and shadows and bright and dark areas 9 What to know about Photoshop a Layer masks what do they represent i Black areas we don t want to show ii White areas are visible ay levels of transparency Layer adjustments destructive or nondestructive 39 Nondestructive image editing i39 Using ADJUSTMENT LAYERS adjust levels imagegtadjustgtlevels to maximize the H 1mage ii39 Using ADJUSTMENT LAYERS eliminate color casts Channels i Di erent color channels RGB3 CMYK4 Info palette i What can it tell you 1 display information likecolor values cursor position selection or transformation or selection width amp height f Histogram i What can it tell you 1 shows how the luminance values in a digital or digitized photograph are distributed 2 linear scale in a histogram runs from black at one end to White at the opposite end 3 256 increments g Vignette i How to execute with a layer mask 1 Make selection create layer mask go over with black what you want to disappear ii What is important 1 Make sure you don t have a sharp edge iii What can go wrong 1 Hide image see a sharp edge 10 Digital Halftones a What is a halftone i Reprographic technique that simulates continuous tone imagery through the use of dots varying either in size in shape or in spacing ii Smallest unit which a screen consists of b What is a Process Color Separation i CMYK c Why how do printers use dots to render photographs using the offset litho printing process i CMYK halftone dots at different angles to reproduce a colored image d Basic densitometry i What does one indicate to a press operator 1 The density values indicate to the press operator whether the amount of ink should be increased or decreased Un a ll 5 null 13 Hill l39llifml sulml i f Dot shapes and frequency lpi i Conventional AM 2 Disadv large easy to moire ii Stochastic FM 1 Adv a Better reproduction of details b No screen angles no moire or rosettes 2 Disadv a Tinted areas and soft tonal transitions can appear blotchy iii Hybrid XM 1 Adv a Reproduce ne detail b Depict middletones without patchiness 2 Disadv g What is dot gain i Measurement of the change in size of the halftone dot from lm to print Pquot how are digital halftones rendered i Halftone DOTS are made of SPOTS SPOTS are grouped in cells DOTS are assigned a frequency LPI angle 45 degrees shape round square line ellipse determining gray levels at a specific resolution lpi i gray levels output resolution lpi2 l j causes ofmoire i when scanning old halftones interfere with new halftone screens ii patterns in image coincide with those of the screen iii wrong screen angles why do we print with dots i Process limitations 1 Offset presses print a uniform ink film thickness ii Simulation of densities 1 Relation of the original to the reproduction 2 Dots of various sizes simulate the various ct densities gray levels of the original 3 deception F GC 440640 Cumulative Final Exam Study Guide Topics in bold type will carry extra weight 55 t 8 Your goals recall them from the beginning of the semester Did you achieve them What is quotCommercial Printingquot Be able to articulate a concise response GC s mission statement a To develop dedicated practical problem solving people for the printing publishing imaging packaging and allied industries Your problem solving process a How did you implement a problem solving strategy during the past semester Think about specific problems that you had with prepress press bindery timemanagement equipment etc What steps can be taken by the prepress worker and or the press operator to ensure consistency and quality from sheet to sheet and from jobtojob a Use cylinder marks to line up sheet and make sure printing in same place every time i AKA Running mrget as running can pull a sheet and make sure printing in same place every time ii Cylinder marks are running mrgem that ensure register 1 Advanmges of cylinder marks aBefore during and after ensures consistency bAfter first cut first cut register corner guide corner the cylinder marks should be located in the back left corner c Side to side Ensures that you re printing in the right place and same place dYou must know the press sheet size in order to place the cylinder marks accurately 2 Three wag to add cylinder marks a imposition software or page layout software bmanually mask a scribed piece of film c scratch the plate 2 problems with this could hurt the blanket a burr can slit the blanket or rollers b Register vs Fit Backup i Difference Between Register amp Fit 1 Register Helps to determine same place a Determined by cylinder marks on edge of sheet This is step 2 and 3 on list When talking about 2 Calms lining up Register bFit colors lining up with each other in the right place on the sheet i Determined by steps 4 and 5 on list ii Register 1 Register is the overall agreement in the position and alignment of printing details on a press sheet 2 Also The proper positioning of the sheet with respect to the image on the blanket 3 Once square the plate image can be moved by the operator on the fly both circumfrencially amp laterally 4 When talking about 2 Calms lining up Register a Circumferentially how being printed in romry direction bLaterally left to right iii Back Up 1 When you are printing the back side make sure the images line up to each other front to back aStraight to lead edge is not necessanly as important as straight to each other when you are examining this aspect bUse a light mble to check 6 SOPs importance level of detail know your notes from your press demo 7 Graphic Design Considerations a Elements and Principles of Design i Contrast An eyeicatching quality of a layout that adds interest or emphasis Whereas contrast adds emphasis and catches the eye rhythm directs the eye a Color i Color is candy to the eye ii Immediately attracts attention stark vs subtle contrast iii Backgrounds should be subtle to allow for contrast 1 Foreground elements should take precedence iv Use white space as a Visual element to increase the effect of contrast b Size i Works with the element of Proportion to add emphasis c Shape i Organic shape vs geometric shape d Texture i Tmplies tactile sensation depth ii Ex rough smooth hard Soft wet dry dirty e Etc ii Rhythm the H owquot 7 Rhythm leads the eye in a directionitoward the next thing that you want to see next How do you control rhythm Using contrast and balance i Balance the even distribution of Visual elements to create a pleasing effect lfa design is in balance the elements appear to be equalized 1 If design is balances the Visual elements appear to be equalized a Formal Balance b Informal Balance i Asymmetric Balance ii Relies upon conceptual balance ii Unity is the inclusion andor placement of Visual elements so that they don t clash with one another or the overall tone theme or message 1 All Visual elements should support each other 2 Common Visual elements unify pages in a publication 3 Text should support photos illustrations 4 Fonts should support the tone of the subject like Hbodylanguagequot ii Proportion Appropriate size relationships among design elements 1 Text size should be appropriate to the format of the layout Common Design Mistakes i Typographic Design Know the handout 1 The ideal length ofa line of text a 32 to 62 characters or 7 to 10 words 2 How is the choice of a typeface important See Heveiz39m a Brand Identity b Can use different typeface to relay different messages Margins gripper plate clamp page color bars bleeds i Margins bleeds column guides grids E quotV 1 Bottom margin needs to be a little bit larger than other sides 8 E 2 3 Make use of the master page set up column guides or grids 4 In paragraph style use mbs to indenn not mb button 5 Use common grids margins columns for spatial consistency Don t get too close to edge a Adds subconscious order 6 Bleeds are 125 for all sides Risky design choices i What is impormnt to look for when creating text wrap 1 Make sure its even 2 Visual effect evenness of buffer ii Know the risks involved with bleed allowance transparencies crossovers reverses large solids gamut 1 Large Solids aUse rich black to bolster color of solids when they are used in 2 and 4vcolor printing bToo much ink coverage causes difficulties in mainmining consistency mechanical a CMYK CMYKOG Pantone not all have identical palettes Gradients a problems with banding caused by limimtions of the imagingprinting process Ghost Halftones a Designers find it difficult to understand the balance of readability and design bPull back shadow values to 40 or less c Look to surprint over highkey areas of a photograph 5 Transparent Objects a examples vignettes drop shadows opacity changes etc bdifficult to RIP and sometimes difficult to print c These present potential problems because of issues with the appearance of bounding A 5 boxes Crossovers a It s difficult to line up images lines colors when they run across signatures Bleeds a make sure bleeds out to 125 bdon t have floating image Reverse Type a light type on a black background 00 Electronic PrePress 21 b Software types of application programs i Word processing allows you to efficiently write and edit test in a simple format prior to applying design elements ii Image Editing tools for graphically manipulating images intended for printing iii Illustration allows you to draw or create original images with the help of the computer iv Page layout merges text and images into complete laid out pages V Preflight Programs used to control that the original digital print is technically correct vi Imposition enable you to place several pages on the same film for a complete film assembly rather than mounting several individual films vii Dambase primarily used to archive and index production items Raster vs Vector Images requirements for quality images when each are appropriate quotV 59 5 i There are two kinds of computer graphics I raster composed of pixels and vector composed of paths 1 Raster a Raster images are more commonly called bitmap images A bitmap image uses a grid of individual pixels where each pixel can be a different color or shade Bitmaps are composed of pixels 2 Vector a Vector graphics use mathematical relationships between poin13 and the paths connecting them to describe an image Vector graphics are composed of paths What s the right tool for the job Vectors rasters page layout imposition etc i lnDesign layout program ii Illustrator vectors iii Photoshop images File formats characteristics of jpg eps tiff psd pdf Digital imaging checklist what is important to routinely check when preparing an image for digital print production i Make sure have good starting image 1 Put garbage image in and will get garbage image out ii Want to remin as much dam as possible How can checklis13 improve a print production workflow 1 c Create order lmprove quality Help communicate amp review 4 Allow for continuous improvement 5 Ensure consistency Reduce errors 7 lmproves productivity Digital images check for for RGB to CMYK conversion 1 Tone reproduction E 2 Detail enhancement curves 3 Color correction 4 Color conversion Digital imaging checklis13 the concept 1 Capture good plentiful image dam a Remember the GIGO principle bConsider the Photographic Lighting c Quality of the input device dDeliberate processing correction enhancement i Handling poor originals ii Look for demil iii Remin as much image dam as possible eAutomate the process where possible V V PDF files how to create them how they are used in a worklow i Acrobat lets you convert any document into an Adobe Portable Document Format PDF file ii Original appearance preserved then distributed it for viewing andor printing on any operating system iii Acrobat is a smndard for networked document delivery iv Ability to be shared viewed printed by anyone on any platform using free reader software 9 W V Can be created in Distiller converting engine from PostScript to PDF 9 use when need more control OVEI ODS vi Can be used in workflow to output files to a RIP or to make proofs for a client Troubleshooting digital files Practical issues of working with digital fonts ii Pre ighting l Automate the preflighting process by aBatch Processing i Function macro which can be employed automatically on for example all images in a folder bDroplets i lcon created by droplet on desktop automatically activates a function in cermin program when you drag file in droplet icon c Hot Folders ome preflighting points designed to indicate risky design choices aBleed bText box too close to edge c Rich black d Proportion picture sizing 2 I iii Handling spot and process colors 1 Spot Color a Printing inks in special colors eg in the Pantone Matching System Generally used as complement to black or to achieve a precise color which 4color inks can t provide Mixed using a recipe i Pantone Matching System made up of 1439 basic colors that mix together to form 1013 of other colors bCommonly used in corporate logos amp identity programs amp in 1 or Zicolor jobs c When do you use spot colors i Only want to use 1 or 2 colors in printed product ii Want to use colored text wout risk of misregistration iii lmp cermin color is exactly right logo tinted area iv Want to use colors like gold silver fluorescent or colors thatr more saturated than 4vcolor combos can manage v Want to have cermin color printed w out rasters vi Toml color coverage is limited in print 2 Process Color a Colors used for printing usually CMYK also called 4color process bTo reproduce a color image a file is separated into 439 diff colors C M Y K When printed on paper original image is recreated c Process colors are represented as percenmges of cyan magenta yellow amp black Varying the percentages offers thousands or color possibilities dWhen do you use process colors i Going to print 4color images ii Going to use more that 2 colors iv What is a proof What is the purpose of a proof Basic Typography 21 b C Know the typography handout Type Anatomy and Speci cation Leading and spacing d e Fonts Alignment Printer s measurement 10 Press a Safety And Health i Safety Rules 1 Nothing on top of the press 2 Never take a rag to a moving press 3 Always know where your partner s hands are 4 No cell phones on your person while working on the press Personal Contact responsibility E 1 Most dangerous times for the press operator amp for the press itself a Press Operator during plate mounting b Press when being cleaned with cleanup attachments Potential mechanical hazards 1 Plate can become dislodged from grippers 2 Feeder can jam Solvent handling and disposal 1 Rags soaked in solvents should be disposed of in red containers c E Z Solvents go in red liquid conminers not down sink Major issues of operation i sheet feeding and guidance 1 side guides center sheet before going through press ii Substrate quotrun abiltiyquot 1 How well it can run the 2nd 3 4dquot time through the press iii Three point register 1 screen printing in 207 with white mbs 2 Marking the lead edge and the guide edge 3 helps keep printed sheet straight and square 4 makes sure you line paper up in same spot every time iv Troubleshooting mis feeds V Ink control and measurement vi Dampening 1 The dampening system a Newer large presses will have an integrated or continuous dampening system b Duplicators mostly have ductor system c What is the difference i Ductor ii Continuous iii Triple duct d Ducted i Ductor roller allows rollers to run at two different speeds l Ducts twice per revolution 2 Direct to plate a dampening rollers and ink rollers don t touch each other before touching plate e Continuous Integrated i MOZ is integrated so the dampening can run continuously in conmct with the dampening roller ii Dahlgren invented the integrated system At 1000inch they would replace c d e 5 Heidelberg dampening systems 1 If you speed the press in an integrated system you have to adjust the water iii Ink rollers and dampening rollers touch each other before touching plate vii Impression viii Delivery Chute gravity fed Chain allows much faster operation because the sheet only has to drop 1 8 then the next AA Nb t vv sheet drops on top Vacuum brake grabs the back of the sheet to slow it down so the sheet can fall properly Fans blow the sheet down and keep it from sagging in the middle Setoff powder a Is cornsmrch b You can get it in different thicknesses for different thicknesses of ink Powder buildup building of powder on the blanket or impression back cylinder Infrared heat lamp warms the sheet helping it to set or dry quicker raise 18 cum drying time in 12 36quot cum in half again AAA 91583 AA d9 Registration system Sections of the press sheet ow If you then your image will print straight and centered on the sheet 1 2 iii iv While cutting paper turn paper counterclock wise so that the last cut edge is against the side of the cutter Last side cut in paper smck is squarest 1 Mark guide corner Make sure plate is straight and lined up when punching holes in it Causes of a Job Not Printing Square 1 Stripping an operator sensitive condition Digiml Template 2 Plating punched crooked flaw slipped off of the pins 3 Mounting another operator sensitive condition 439 Cutting and Feeding paper paper not jogged well head stops angled feed and registration mble not set up properly 7 items checked and why they are checked in that order and how it changes on a multicolor press 1 Is it straight to the lead edge of the press sheet a draw the line across the bottom to see it marks on bottom are lined up 2 Is it printing in the same place lead to tail aregistration hamburger top and bottom line up same place 3 Is it printing in the same place left to right aregistration hotdog left and right side line up same place 439 Is it printing in the right place lead to mil a fit hamburger top and bottom are both in the right place middle of page 5 Is it printing in the right place left to right a fit hotdog left and right are both in right place 6 Is the impression set correctly a check the density of the color patches binconsistent across then change ink keys c consistently in density across paper but too much or little then change doctor stroke 7 Are the ink and water balanced a looking at the image bscumming turn up founmin solution g Packing I for plate and blanket amount and purpose i Plate packing is used to underlay a press blanket or plate to bring the surface to the desired height the method of adjusting squeeze pressure Determined by blanket type 1520 million impression life Packing of the blanket 1 Squeeze 002 lt004 v Between the plate amp blanket vi Between the blanket amp impression vii On the MOZ we build the blanket to bearer height and build the plate to 004 over bearer height viii Plate Cylinder 1 MOZ 018 plate undercut 2 Too much packing will stretch the image not good 3 Blanket compresses wwear crushing the blanket fibers h Dampening system options continuous ducted triple ducted i Ducted 1 Ductor roller allows rollers to run at two different speeds a Ducts twice per revolution bDirect to plate i dampening rollers and ink rollers don t touch each other before touching plate ii Continuousglntegrated l MOZ is integrated so the dampening can run continuously in conmct with the dampening roller 2 Dahlgren invented the integrated system At 1000inch they would replace Heidelberg dampening systems a If you speed the press in an integrated system you have to adjust the water 3 Ink rollers and dampening rollers touch each other before touching plate iii Dampening solution I components water acid gum oleophilicoleophobic and aquaphilicaquaphobic l Newer large presses will have an integrated or continuous dampening system 2 Duplicators mostly have ductor system 3 What is the difference a Ductor bContinuous c Triple duct d Oliophilic oil loving areas where image is attracted to e WOliophobic non image areas holding water and repelling ink 439 Chiller a fill up with water mixed with fountain solution i Solution makes water wetter bif fountain solution too strong then will eat away at the ink c 1550 micromhos of solution in 3 gallons of water dchiller 9 pan 9 pan roller 9 metering roller Fountain Solution is a surfacmnt A Ln V 6 A common problem in many press rooms is the excessive use of founmin solution concentrate aToo strong a mixture can attack the ink paper or plate 7 M a Eliminate plateroller sensitivityoxidation i preven13 oxidation on the press like how the ink dries on top layer in can bFive types i Gum Arabic Idampening rollers on the Meihle ii RIprocess gum I synthetic substitute for gum arabic iii Asphaltum Gum Etch Idampening rollers on the MOZ c Gums and greases i Plate storage gum I storing plates for reuse ii Plate finishing gum I goes in the plate processor dGums and cleans iv Conductivity 1 Conductivity measuremenm can prevent that from happening a Conductivity is the ability of a solution to conduct electricity bThis is directly related to the quantity of dissolved material concentration or ounces per gallon of fountain solution concentrate c Through experimenmtion establish the concentration of founmin solution that performs best with your dampening system and printing requiremenm v Ink and water balance 1 Printing a layer of water and ink on press sheet in Balance avoid slinging 2 Scumming conmminated water roller cover too little water bad plate chemically sensitized too much ink 3 So lww much dampening should we use a Chemical ghostingblinding on plate b Use enough to clear the plate vi Fluid measurements I mixing ratios 1 Measuring a conductivity 1500 micromhos over water I 100 in our lab carries the electrical charge b60 to 65 for memllic inks i ohms measures resismnce ii micromhos measures flow of electricity or conductivity 2 MEMORIZE a 128 oz to a gallon b6439 oz to 12 gallon c32 oz to a quart d16 oz to a pint e8 oz to a cup i Impression Run I purpose and technique how much impression is necessary Press configurations units feeder rollers size delivery etc i Paper cutting amp feeder demo 1 Side Guide move paper over a centimeter before going into press to line it up Make sure to compensate the side guides movement if the paper when lining up the paper to be fed a Ex line up paper cm to the right bc side guide will move the paper left a cm when centering it 2 Head Stop metal hands that stop the paper for a second to line up the paper 3 Drive Wheels our drive Wheels should have equal downward pressure on the drive belts a Don t want sheet to bounce around when being guidedcentered w C 5 b To prevent this box in sheet with drive wheels want pitch of 2 front wheels to box in the sheet s tail edge so that as the sheet is pulled into the center position by the side guide the sheet only guides moves in a lateral side to side motion 4 Double Sheet Detector rollers that detect if too many sheem are being fed into the press a If paper coming through is too thick too many sheem then the roller touching the paper will bump up and touch another roller causing it to turn If top roller turn then feeder is turned off ii Stream fed vs Successive fed 1 Stream paper over overlaps like in the MOZ when being fed in press speed is higher than the feeder speed aStream Feed allows the feed to move at 13 to 14 the speed of the press bHow does it work i Feeds from the back of the sheet and pushes the sheet underneath the sheet that was fed before it ii Moves it forward a few inches depending on the size of the press sheet iii The whole sheet does not have to move into place stop then be guided into final position iv Side guide 1 Purpose is to center the sheet before is printed c Runnability is the issue here ability for a substrate to be run through a printing machine 2 Successive one sheet at a time like the duplicator shee13 feed at speed of press Delivery Types Vaccuum breaks anit set off powder 1 Chute gravity fed 2 Chain allows much faster operation because the sheet only has to drop 18 then the next sheet drops on top 3 Vacuum brake grabs the back of the sheet to slow it down so the sheet can fall properly 439 Fans blow the sheet down and keep it from sagging in the middle 5 Setoff powder a Is cornsmrch bYou can get it in different thicknesses for different thicknesses of ink 6 Powder buildup building of powder on the blanket or impression back cylinder 7 Infrared heat lamp warms the sheet helping it to set or dry quicker raise 18 a cum drying time in 12 36quot cum in half again Web vs sheetfed i ii Sheetfed not continuous MOZ print on shee13 of cut paper better quality DI technology i D1 is direct image and is a trademark of Presstelc so all others are DOP direct on press ii lmage goes directly on the plate cylinder instead of using plate like gravure Cylinders packing issues under plate and blanket i Be sure not to put too much or it will stretch the plate and mess up image ii If put too much then the plate is not munt on the roller Blankets smooth and buff conventional and compressible i Conventional and Compressible ii What we demand of a blanket l Resismnce to all dampening solution additives 2 Web continuous feeding like when made stickers paper on rolls 2 Hydrophobic propertiesto minimize water transfer to paper 3 Low tendency to become electrosmtically charged 396 O 439 Low sheet adhesion to prevent picking a Picking coating of paper gem picked off 5 Lateral sealing to prevent dampening solution from entering the inner structure of the blanket iii Purpose 1 Transfer image from plate to substrate iv Pars 1 Carcass polyester liquidresismnt layer rubber face a Carcass is rubber coating V Blanket Care 1 Keep dust amp debris off of blanket to prevent hickeys vi Cast vs Buff 1 Cast smooth vs buff texture Rollers type and stripe Printing problems and their solutions i Slow Makereadies 1 Lack of focus on pre makeready activities 2 Mechanical problems reduce productivity amp profimbility 3 Solutions 21 Develop amp implement quick makeready SOPs 13 Develop amp implement an effect amp systematic maintenance program 30 of run time dedicated to maintenance ii k Sheet register transfer abnormal over impression improper squeeze Solutions 1 2 a Torque blanket evenly across the Width of the cylinder adjust impression setting repack plate blanket iii Pickingg Linting 1 Picking lifting of the coating from coated stocks onto plates blankem andor ink train rollers 2 Linting accumulation of fibers from uncoated stocks onto plates blankem and or ink train rollers 3 Solutions 21 Cut back on dampening b Consult paper manufacture possible faulty paper 6 Consult ink manufacturer to adjust ink for less mck iv Mechanical Ghosting 1 Typically caused by ink smrvation but can also be caused by form rollers w an incorrect diameter amp swollen or compressed blankets ink form rollers cannot supply enough ink coverage on form a Starvation of ink cause by lack of replenishment 2 Solution 21 Amend imposition or layout 1 Checkreset roller stripes Chemical Ghosting 1 Excessive dampening founmin solution level v 2 Excessive acidity of founmin solution 3 Solution 21 Reduce dampening level b Check conductivity of founmin solution vi ob won t fit on press press sheet 1 Improper stripping 2 Platemaking accuracy abnormal 3 Solution 21 Re check register parameters i Format of press press sheet plate clamp margin gripper margin ect Dried ink particles of misc debris Coating particles and dust from paper Solution 21 Keep press amp rollers clean amp in good condition I Consult w paper ink supplier Ink Emulsification 1 Fountain solution emulsifies ink 2 Ink is too soft 3 Solution 21 Cut back on dampening or reset dampeners b Ink w more body is needed consult w ink manufacturer have ink reformulated Image Blinding 1 Excessive gum in founmin solution causes plate to become too water receptive 2 Excessive acid or alkaline fountain solution 3 General conmmination 4 Solution 21 Replace fountain solution W proper mix I Check plate processing chemistry c Handle with care X Static in Pressroom 1 Caused by lack of moisture 2 Solution 21 Maintain relative humidity between 40 50 b Install smtic eliminator on press feeder amp feed table c Use misters pressroom d Allow paper to acclimate Xi Mottle 1 Uneven ink absorptivity of the paper 2 Inks not trapping properly a Back Trap Mottle BTM 3 Solution 21 Consult paper manufacturer I Use a different process series of inks xii Proofs don t match press sheet 1 Dot gain characteristics of prepress proofs don t match dot gain characteristics of press 2 Different Gamum 3 Solution 21 Use a press test form to finger print dot gain characteristics of press I Plot a transfer compensation dot gain curve amp apply to images c Characterize press amp use profiles Press clean up procedures i Collect excess ink amp fountain solution ii Wipe down extra ink off rollers iii Atmch clean up atmchmenm and run for 1045 minutes iv Wipe the clean up atmchments 11 Halftones a Tone control curves levels i Tonal Range is a Function of Bit Depth Indicates number of grey levels ii Height Density Range iii of steps of grey levels iv Tonal changes created by the size of the dot when printing with conventional dots and by the number of dots when printing stochastic v Steepness of the Curve increases the degree of the tonal change or tonal separation thereby adding demil a Special Effects I techniques and reasoning b Duotones types and curves i The purposes for a duotone 1 Create a mood or feeling 2 Draws attention adds impact to the overall picture 3 Increases detail tonal range adds realism ii Curves 1 Black curve flat then sloped colorful duotone 2 Other curve color flat then sloped subtle duotone iii Types 1 Subtle Duotone Ex Black and Cyan aBlack carries the detail in the highlighm bBlack is called the Light Printer 2 Colorful Duotone Ex Black and Cyan a Cyan carries the demil in the highlighm bCyan is called the Light Printer c Posterizations i Continuous tone images and converting it to fewer tones with abrupt changes from one tone to the other d Ghost halftones i Pull back shadow values to 40 or less e Irregular shaped halftones f Basic densitometry i basic density range BDR Range of demil produced from halftone screen by main exposure ii copy density range CUR Difference between the lightest highlight and the darkest shadow of a photograph or continuous tone copy iii An image with a low BDR is not a good one iv quotquot ln four color process printing it is especially impormnt that the cyan magenm amp yellow densities are in balance or the color hue of the red green blue 2 color overprin13 will shift V Why measure density 1 ln pressroom solid patches of each ink are printed amp measured The density values indicate to the press operator whether the amount of ink should increase or decrease g Grayscale and density i 03 50 reflecmnce h Dot shapes i Stochastic 1 Not truly random 2 Uses dots measured in microns spread out within specified areas imaged by each laser ii Conventional 1 Grid pattern of dos iii Hybrid 1 A combination of conventional and stochastic i Dot gain issues i Halftone DOTS are made of SPOTS ii SPOTS are grouped in cells iii DOTS are assigned a 1 frequency LPI 2 angle commonly 45 degrees 3 shape round square line ellipse iv Dot shape selection is based upon concerns with dot gain and avoiding moire l Elliptical dots are most common Color Correction i Where when how ii Worse place to color correct is on press iii Color correct when RGB because has larger gamut than CMYK iv Necessary to account for the deficiencies in the inks amp substrates that we print on v EX magenta absorbs some blue lights it s not supposed to Yellow is blue light absorber To correct we reduce the amount of yellow printing in areas with magenm in them resulting in absorbing only the required amount of blue vi Why do you color correct Inconsistencies in ink Color cast in picture Substrate Deficiencies in scanner Customer needs Adjust for printing systems Lighting during shooting vii Adjust hue and saturation to avoid gamut warning k Gray Balance i Achieving neutrality ii The ability to reproduce a grayscale without a cast or overall hue iii Theoretically equal parts of CMY 1 Actually hue error requires different amp unknown percentages of each color AAAAAA NOLA Pme vvvvvvv iv Adjust curves 1 Detail enhancement i Techniques ii May be accomplished by applying unsharp mask using a third party extension or by varying GCRUCG levels or using special effect options in Photoshop Be careful not to overdo effecm or you might lose information iv Unsharp masking Z Imposition a Plate clamp and gripper margins b Work and Turn Tumble i Both save 1 Time on electronic prepress prep on the press makeready but not during press run 2 Materials film stripping supplies plates amp chemistry 3 Press makeready ii Requiremenm 1 Quick setting inks note diff in setting amp drying 2 Printed piece must be 2 or more up amp an even number 3 Work amp Tumble requires pre trimming c Sheetwise d quotHead to Headquot e Know the terms quotheadquot quotfootquot 8 quotfacequot Press Test Fingerprint a Why and when do we test i Why 1 To calibrate press performance win a specific workflow a Calibrate is putting something in a known smte 2 To determine amp therefore adjust the quality parameters that can be expected from the press amp materials used ii How Often 1 Smndard time to run press test is 1 2 months 2 Depends on a Material changes bClimate changes c Customer changes dMaterial lifespan durations e Drift expecmtions overtime i Drift how much machine or equipment get out of wack over time 1 Density how and why is it measured i Goal Densities can determine with GRACOL smndards chart or through running range of densities during press test 9 run ink at unreasonably high density number then run w ink off at very low density number to have range then work way to middle ranges of density Use these numbers along with print contrast to get an optimized density for a specific job 1 1f ink wet then will read w higher meter than if ink was dry c Print Contrast I how and why it is computed i Print Contrast indicates an imaging system s proof or print ability to hold open the shadow areas while still mainmining high solid ink density 1 Hold open hold off the effecm of dot gain or compensate for them ii Print contrast is a measure of the quality of printed screens in the 3 tones PC SID 75 tint densityX 100 SID iv Goal 17 SID and 41 print contrast d Solid Ink Density SID how do we know what to shoot for What are goal densities i Solid Ink Density ii With our substrate a good print contrast number to look for in the black is whenever the S1D is between 16 and 18 iii As ink densities rise the contrast also rises with a Hsmndard ink density highest contrast is achieved when over inking begins the dos tend to gain and the contrast decreases again e TVI MechanicalOptical Dot Gain Compensation curves i Tonal Value 1ncrease TVI formerly known as Dot Gain the reflection halftone percenmge measured on a printed sample minus the original halftone percenmge le value that produces it 4 f 1 Mechanical vs Optical dot gain aAlways will be some sort of dot gain i Mechanical 1 Occurs as a result of plate making or press operations that cause the geometry of the dot to change ii Optical 1 Occurs when light is trapped under dots and thus the dot appear optically larger Wet Trap Basics Of Color 21 Process Color i Basic Process Color Theory 1 2 Dominant inks provide the objec13 color The 3quot1 ink provides the shape amp demil A skeleton black provides shadow detail amp neutral density 1 What is a process color separation What is involved in the process of creating one i Tone Control Reproduction 1 How many tones can we produce within a range 2 Objective to achieve a one to one rendition of the tints amp shades seen in the original 3 Refers to the lightness amp darkness of the highlights midtones amp shadow areas 439 Adjust levels ii Demil enhancement 1 Techniques 2 May be accomplished by applying unsharp mask using a third party extension or by varying GCRUCG levels or using special effect options in Photoshop 3 Be careful not to overdo effecm or you might lose information 439 Unsharp masking iii Color correction 1 Where when how 2 Worse place to color correct is on press 3 Color correct when RGB because has larger gamut than CMYK 439 Necessary to account for the deficiencies in the inks amp substrates that we print on 5 EX magenm absorbs some blue lights it s not supposed to Yellow is blue light absorber To correct we reduce the amount of yellow printing in areas with magenm in them resulting in absorbing only the required amount of blue 6 Why do you color correct a Inconsistencies in ink bColor cast in picture c Substrate dDeficiencies in scanner e Customer needs f Adjust for printing systems g Lighting during shooting 5 Adjust hue and saturation to avoid gamut warning i Gray balance Conversion 1 Achieving neutrality 2 The ability to reproduce a grayscale without a cast or overall hue 3 Theoretically equal par13 of CMY aActually hue error requires different amp unknown percenmges of each color 439 Adjust curves b What we see and how we see it physiological vs psychological factors 6 i Factors that affect color perception 1 Light Source a Type of illuminant b Time of day c Human eye will always adapt to the ambient light source amp see it as neutral white adjusting the perception of any colors viewed under it 2 Object a Substrate bSurround 3 Observer physiological factors a Color amp density measuremenm play important roles in the process control of color reproduction but they can t replace the human observer for final assessment of the color quality of complex images bHuman perception is not consistent from person to person i Sex male or female EXz females have fewer color deficiencies than men ii Age iii Color Vision EX color blind iv Eye Fatigue c Cones located on the back of the eye are sensitive to red green and blue wavelengths Color Temperature d Viewing conditions 9 i 5000K Light Color originals and their basic density ranges RGBCMYKLab i Lab 1 L Lightness Channel luminance values 2 A Green Red Axis can have I amp values 3 B Blue Yellow Axis can have I amp values ii HSL l H Hue a Describing color 2 S Saturation a Chroma vividness richness amp purity of color 3 L Lightness CMYK l Percentages of Cyan Magenm Yellow amp Black 2 Four color process printing 3 We convert from RGB to create CMYK process separations 439 All 439 color channels are separate grayscale images 5 CMYK tint builds or screen combinations iii iv RGB l R Red 2 G Green 3 B Blue V Digital ranges of above color models 1 lABw127 to 128 2 HSL don t need to know 3 CMYK 0 to 100 V g 4 RGB 00 255 Additive and subtractive color theory and their interaction with one another hHow we see colors printed on a sheet is governed by the interaction between the Additive Sr Subtractive Theories i Additive Color System 1 Uses colored lights RGB 2 Mix different amount of RGB to produce other colors 3 Equal amounts of RGB produce White Light 439 EX TV amp Spot lights at a concert ii Additive Color Mixtures 1 Red Blue Magenta 2 Blue Green Cyan 3 Red Green Yellow 4 Red Blue Green White iii Subtractive Color System 1 Uses colorants CMY 2 Mix different amounts of CMY to produce other colors 3 Equal amounts of CMY produce Black in theory a1n Reality equal amounts 0 fCMY really print dark brown i This happens because 1 Pigments are not pure Paper is not truly white 439 EX filters 81 ink iv Subtractive Color Mixtures 1 Cyan Yellow Green 2 Magenta Cyan Blue 3 Magenta Yellow Red 4 Cyan Magenta Yellow Black Remember I drink my RC cola down BY the river in my GM truck 1 C minus R 2 Y minus B 3 M minus G vi Printers use cyan magenta 81 yellow to subtract one of the additive colors These inks are just chemical filters that absorb different wavelengths Filters and how they work i Filter absorbs other light and reflects its color 1 EX Blue filter absorbs red and green light and passes blue 2 EX Cyan filter absorbs red and passes green and blue ii Inks are filters 1 We are not printing color We are printing anticolor aThe ink color is blocking light rays from reflecting 9 allowing for the rays that make up the wanted ink color to reflect V 9 51 Q j Metamerism i Metamerism metamerism failure is observed when 2 color samples appear to match under a particular light source 81 then don t match under a light source w a different spectral power distribution 1 Use purple rhem light indicator stickers that shows stripes of diff color in bad light 2 Blue amp black sock story looks like wearing same color socks in one light but realize you are when you get into diff light Color Management a Basic ColorManagernent issues i Inability to reproduce entire range 13 Why do colors differ from one output device to another c Profiles when and where are they used How are they created d Gamut i Range of Color ii Overlapping of different systems iii Compression e ITS targets purpose i Calibrating all devices involved in the process chain original scanner digital camera monitor printer is required for an authentic color reproduction because their actual color spaces differ device specific from the reference color spaces f Delta E i Measure of color distancedifference ii Keep below 2 Delta E 81 no distinct Visual difference iii single number that represents the 39distance39 between two colors Plates a types and their composition 13 platernaking workflow Pritzergy Thermo ex Hot folders Heidelberg DI a Study the lecture notes and Know the DI handout i Press Testing of the DI I The 3 s of Color Repro in effect aCalibration bCharacterization c Conversion ii What makes it a hybrid press 1 Cross between conventional lithographic press and the digital press 2 Images digitally on the press 3 Prints from waterless plates or conventional plates onto offset blanket and then to the press sheet iii What does DI stand for 1 Direct Image 9 trademark ofPresstek iv DI Plate technology 1 The oleophobic part ofthe waterless DI plate consists ofsilicon 2 Aluminum and polyester are alternatives to the silicon b What a typical runlength for a D1 press i Sweet Spot runs of 250 to 10000 pro tably on wide range of substrates ii Feed paper into press of Quiclq naster DI with its shorter dimension first c does it compare to digital printing and conventional offset d Although the D1 is not a digital piess per se it is a hybrid press What is the ideal run length of a true digital press Z 9 Paper a Acclimation to pressroom conditions i 24 36 hours but could vary from 1072 ii Not day of pressrun b Basis Weight i Basic Weight standard set for referring to the different papers win a classification ii Basis Weight weight of500 sheets of the Basic Size Sheet for that class of paper c Basic sizes i US paper industry s measurements of paper density 81 weight are based on traditional sheet sizes which vary w paper type ii These standard sheet specifications have persisted even though in many cases sheets ofthose sizes are no longer manufactured iii HBond Text Index Cover 1 Bond St ledger 17 x 22 computer paper a Doesn t account for bleeds 2 TextBookOffset 25 x 38 a Designed for letterpress will not print w an offset process 3 over 20 x 26 4 Index 25 5 x 30 5 a Tag 2439 x36 b Bristol 22 5 x 28 5 Mweight e Weight of 1000 sheets of paper any size Multiply actual length x width x basis weight of given sheet W x 2 Divided by the of square inches in the basic sheet size aMultip1y by 2 because a ream in only 500 sheets EX What is the M weight for 35 x 45 70 Offset paper7 35 x 45 x 70 W x 2 23 2M 950 f Paper math g Determining best cut out i Cutting plan affected by grain direction bc 1 The sheet has to be run grain long 9 this determines the cutting plan bc you have to factor in the side of the sheet that is going to be fed first into the press 2 Always look at the grain direction needs ofthe Finished piece h Grain directi 391 H n ow where is it formed What is the grain direction of roll stock 1 Grain direction is formed in the direction of the wire on the paper making machine 2 Grain direction is created at the front end of the paper making machine 3 Run sheet grain long a Duplicator grain long runs perpendicular to press cylinders bPresses grain long runs parallel to press cylinders 439 Figure out grain direction by tearing amp comparing roughness of edges i Sizing why is it added to the ingredients of paper during the paperrnaking process Watermarks how are they are created when i Why 1 Security 2 Prestige 3 Advertisement ii How 1 Etched wire on the Dandy Roller helps to form raw fibers k Paper Characteristics i Whiteness 1 Whiteness of paper is the color balance of paper what cast of light does the paper have color cast 2 Takes more than 1 reading to determine whiteness 3 Can find out with a formula ii Brightness 1 Intensity of colors also called luminance How light or dark an image is 2 The percentage of reflecmnce of light 3 Take one reading to determine brightness brightness meter reads 1 distinct wavelength of light 10 Ink a Selection how you want to use it which press how plan on drying it i Oil based dries primarily by evaporation and oxidation will form an ink skin in the can additives 48 hours is smndard drying time for commercial sheet fed offset oil base inks ii Rubber Base dries by absorption no skin iii UV cured by UV light and dries insmntly iv Sublimation ink printed to the paper then placed on fabric heated and ink turns into a gas and dyes the fabric v Consider 1 Lightfastness 2 Opacity aTransparent bOpaque 3 Other concerns color resismnce to fade resismnce to products wemblility texture hardness etc 5 Ingredients i Oil based dries primarily by evaporation and oxidation will form an ink skin in the can additives ii Rubber Base dries by absorption no skin iii UV cured by UV light and dries insmntly iv Sublimation ink printed to the paper then placed on fabric heated and ink turns into a gas and dyes the fabric Tack sequence interaction with substrate trap i Measured based on stickiness amp ability to be able to split between 2 surfaces 3 ii How do you determine mck run sequence 1 KCMY is most common run sequence bc black is a key color and is good for registration 9 as a result black is usually the mckiest ink of them like pbampj 9 peanut butter is black ink jelly is other ink paper is bread and knife is the blanket 9 peanut butter is tackier than jelly so it causes jelly to stick of the knife 2 Upstream uni13 always higher in mck than down streams 9 if not have ink migration which leads to conmmination Setting and Dr ngz aSetting 30 min to two hours the top of the ink film dries enough to print again bTo determine if ink has set try to smear the ink with your finger and a light touch c Drying about 48 hours 3 11 Drying how do common offset lithographic inks dry a Dr ng 21 P 1 Setting 30 min to two hours the top of the ink film dries enough to print again ii To determine if ink has set try to smear the ink with your finger and a light touch iii Drying about 48 hours 12 Web offset presses What makes web offset different from Sheetfed Offset i i1 Web offset has 1 Continuous web roll through press 2 ln line finishing proves productivity a Cutting trimming folding 3 Cost a Generally cheaper than sheetfed 4 No impression cylinder No gripper on a web so plate gaps are around a quarter inch 6 Tensionsed all the way through 7 Ex a Made stickers on rolls Sheetfed 1 Not continuous MOZ prin13 on sheets of cut paper better quality Advantages V Disadvantages i Advanmges 1 Top Speeds 2500 I 3000 fpm 2 Perfect Capability 3 ln line finishing a Scoring coating numbering pasting stitching punching etc Paper cost Range of Substrates 6 Spray Powder lack thereof ii Disadvantages 1 Complexity 2 Capiml Cost 3 Operating Cost 4 Fixed sheet length fixed repeat 5 Ink Setting rub off Web Press Design Key Components i Automatic Splicers 1 Flying slicers d 0 CD a Done wout slowing the speed of the press E Zero speed splicers 21 Rolls stop momentarily while the festoon accounts for slack b Change in feed rolls occurs w out stopping press Webbreak detector Web Guides 21 Keeps the web centered although it likes to wander side to side Infeeds Web tensioning devices a Dancer rollers signal tension level to pinch rollers that regulate web tension b Mainmin I to 5 lbs of tensioninch of web width depending upon the grade of paper Cuttoff Control a Chops off the folded web after it is folded on the former board resulting in individual signatures Cum are formed between impression areas where the plate gap occurs Includes register controls for the cut 00 Delivery Device a Most frequently this is a folder Ink Setting Processes i Dryers 1 Ink is set by heat 9 the solvent compnent of the vehicle is evaporated out of ink therefore immobilizing the ink but not necessarily drying it 2 Hot air dryers heat the ink amp paper to approx 275 degrees F 3 A blower circulates air that impinges on the surface of the liquid ink 9 gases strike ink surface forcing evaporation ii Chill Rollers 1 Web passes over water cooled rollers that lower the tem to 70 degrees 2 Cool amp harden the soft warm ink so it forms amp can be finished wout set off or smearing Heatset V Non heatset or quotColdsetquot i Heamet 1 Heat evaporates the oil in the vehicle of the ink 2 This raises the viscosity of the remaining resin which is combined with the pigmen13 3 This ink is not dry it hasn t been chemically changed It can be reconstituted with oil or smeared with heat ii Non heamet or Coldset y 1 Limited to uncoated papers such as newsprint 2 Here the oils soy or mineral penetrate the paper and is entrapped in the interstices small intervening spaces of the paper fibers Web Tension i Needs to be tensioned throughout whole press Very Impormntl ii The Need for Web Tension I Web tension is an absolutely essential condition to the success of web printing for two major reasons I To ensure a consistent path that resists bending as it s pulled over the various bars boards and rollers in the infeed and outfeed of the press 2 For blanket release that does not affect register from color to color and folder registration 3 Considerable force is needed to separate or peel the substrate web from each printing nip 439 For some substrates blanket release forces are as high as 439 lbsin of paper width iii Two ways to control web tension 1 Pinch rollers 2 Arranging the web path to produce a finite angle of conmct or wrap between the web and the capsmn roller 13 Finishing Binding a E r Overall understanding with a focus on signature folds folder types diagrams of knife and buckle folders i Will always get sharper folds when you run the sheem through a folder one sheet at a time Be able to identify i Drilling slotting cornering gathering collating jogging scoring perforating slitting die cutting foil stamping and embossing and numbering Know the glossary of terms from the slides handout V i Binding I assembly of single shee13 or folded signatures into a unit V ii Case bindingI a hard cover book the case is the cover Case bound books are most commonly bound with sewn thread iii Coating I applying a clear layer over a printed or unprinted surface for protection or appearance CollatingI generally used interchangeably with gathering Technically this is the process of checking the order of gathered signatures or pages H 3 v Conventional distribution I Product is printed amp boundfinished and shipped to all locations required by customer using posml service overnight and other delivery systems vi Diecutting I use of sharpened steel strips to cut patterns such as decorative designs in greeting cards tabs on folders and see through windows in binders covers etc vii Distribute amp PrintI The dam conmining text amp graphics are transmitted distributed digimlly to multiple prinV output suppliers for printing near the final recipient viii Dummy a hand made sample of a job used to show page layout on a press sheet and provide production notes for all involved in the manufacturing flow ix Embossing forming paper material between two patterns to leave a mounded sculpted look may also be printed When not printed referred to as blind embossing x Finishing a variety of processes which convert printed sheets or rolls into usable product eg cutting creasing folding amp gluing Foil smmping a method of printing using a heated meml plate or type pressing a pigmented plastic foil against a substrate commonly used to achieve genuine metallic designs xii Folder a mechanical device to automate the process of folding printed shee13 into final form for further binding or final distribution xiii Gathering assembling the pages or signatures in order for binding xiv Grain refers to the direction of alignment of cellulose fibers in paper Grain is impormnt to the folding and strength qualities of paper products xv Guillotine cutter a machine using a precise steel blade and hydraulic power to cut or trim stacks of paper xvi Imposition refers to the position of pages on a press sheet so that when folded the pages are in correct order and right side up lnIline refers to performing operations in one continuous production process printing folding and stitching without being stopped or handled Laminating applyingattaching a layer of material over a surface for protectionappearance purposes using heat or adhesive xvii xviii xix OffIline refers to performing operations as separate steps on a series of different machinesdevices 2m Perfect binding an adhesive system for binding the edges of shee13 into a book with a cover attached over the glued edge E Plastic comb binding also popularly referred to as GBC binding good lay flat but subject to coming apart with abusive handling Saddle stitching a wire staple holding multiple sheets applied through the fold axis most common for small booklem amp magazines mii ScoregScoring to score is to crease paper with a straight piece of steel to weaken the fold line on heavy papers Scoring is necessary to prevent heavily coated papers from fracturing mii causing unsightly folds This is an offline process adding to cost Jody Side stitching a wire smple binding applied through top of the smck at the side of the sheet to form a book normally covered by mpe m Signature a section ofa bookpublication conmining several pages printed in position on a single sheet when folded resulting in a correct sequence of pages Spiral binding a wire binding method which is coiled through punched holes excellent lay flat use commonly used in school type notebooks mvii an operation mltviiigt Trimming done with a guillotine cutter or three knife trimmer to remove the excess material folds etc and leave a finished edge on bound and unbound papers Wire O binding a method of binding single shee13 using meml formed into 0 shapes best in appearance and lay flat qualities Binding options types with adv and disadvantages i Mechanical 1 Pros a Lays flat b Durable c Wide range of colors Staging refers to collecting materials in a location so all items are ready for the next step in mix d Used w thick or thin books e Generally cost effective for shorter runs 0 ons a Difficult for jumping the gutter E a Spiral Wire O Plastic Spiral Plastic Comb Loose Leaf Saddle Stitched best for jumping the gutter 4 Adhesive a Pros i Durable ii Reduce creeppushout gtlt Easy to insert single pages b Cons i Doesn t lay flat ii Poor jump in the cutters crossovers Minimum of 18 thick book for adhesion iv Cover should be scored c Ex i Perfect bound minimum thickness amp glue push ouVup glued signatures hot melt 5 Sewn Books a Most durable b Ex i Smyth sewn notched glued 14 Readings from the text since last exam 21 b 6 PDF amp Work oW pp 245261 Digital Printing pp 325638 Bindery amp Finishing options Chapter 10 Fuldina knifa Folding knife drive Bnokblndlng sheet Sheet mnspnn he 2 Sheet tmnspurt belt Transport and toolknife shah installed downstream Sheet ansport belt Shae guiding devices
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