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Date Created: 09/24/14
Wednesday February 26 2014 Sensation and Perception Psychology Historical perspectives Gustav Fechner 18011887 Psychophysics study of the relationship between physical stimuli and how they are perceptually interpreted Fechner39s Law the sensation one experiences increases as a logarithmic func tion of the intensity of the stimulus Herman Von Helmholtz 18211894 scientist philosopher physician Ernst Weber 1831 more or less of some experienced sensation appeared to be related to the initial magnitude Sensation visual system Humans are visual animals and sight is the dominant Sense for most people Eyes special nerve cells that react to electromagnetic energy Plato vision resulted from particles being shot out of the eye as opposed to light entering eye Visual spectrum wavelengths that humans respond to Newtons prism sir Isaac discovered it was possible to break up the visual spectrum The Eye Cornea light waves from object strike it transparent Astigmatism irregularity of corneadiffuses light disorder may lie within brain Pupil center of the eye that admits lights into the eye Iris colored part muscle controls the amount of light entering the eye Controls the size of the opening in the pupil Lens behind pupil forces light onto the surface of the eye Retina outgrowth of the brain special end part that is sensitive to light film in a camera Wednesday February 26 2014 Rods cylindrical sensitive to low light and blackwhite discrimination enables bet ter periphery vision Cones responsible for color perception and sharper vision Fovea center of retina where most of the cones are located area of sharpest vi sion reading The blind spot where optic nerve leaves the eye and transports info To occipital obe interprets what we are seeing Blind no rods cones Accommodation process of changing the shape of the lens to focus nearfar thick ness or flattens lens Presbyopia loss of elasticity due to aging inability to focus glasses Floaters tiny spots that occasionally float across visual field Cataract clouding of the lens lead to blindness surgery needed to repair Glaucoma increased pressure in eye loss of visibility blindness treat with eye drops Macular degeneration loss of fovea central vision Diabetic retinopathy disruption of blood supply to eye due to uncontrolled diabetes Hyperopia farsightedness Myopia nearsightedness Emmetropia 2020 or perfect vision Eye to brain Specialized function of the cerebral hemisphere Roger W Sherry Visual systems Torsten N Wiesel Corpus Callosum facilitates the transmissions of processed info Starlasmus improper alignment of eyes Amblyopia lazy eye Wednesday February 26 2014 Perception Visual System Color vision Hues frequency of different color ranges Purkinje effect change in color perception as eye shifts from daylight to night levels ofadap on Daylight cones stimulated low light rods react takes about 7 min 20 min to reach dark adaption Color vision deficiencies Dichromat person with only two types of cones lacks ability to distinguish be tween certain colors No red cone all reds yellows oranges may be perceived as yellow Monochromat born with only one cone all ability to perceive color is lost Color blind see in only black and white and shades of gray Color blindness is a genetic defect affecting males more 1 in 50 1 in 5000 for women Perceptual organization gestalt principles of organization Gestalt principle whole is greater than the sum of its parts Figureground separation of object from the rest of the scene so we perceive the figure and ignore the ground Closure tendency to close the open portions of an image Continuity intercepted or crossed lines still seen as continuous flowing lines Similarity parts of the stimuli that are similar are perceived as going together Proximity nearness belonging together objects close to each other are grouped together as parts of same object Common fate things appearing to be moving in same direction tend to be grouped together Perceptual Organization Gestalt Principles of Organization Perceptual constancy refers to the fact that our perception of objects tends to re main the same even though our sensations of objects change Wednesday February 26 2014 Size constancy object tends to remain the same size perceptually despite its change in retinal image size Shape constancy object is viewed as being the same despite changes in its ori entation Color constancy objects tend to perceptually retain their own colors even if the color of light illuminating them changes Visual cliff depth perception research Depth perception ability to judge distance and to perceive the world in three dimen sions Monocular cues one eye Linear perspective parallel lines appear to get closer in distance Clearness nearby objects appear more clear than distant ones lnterposition when one object is entirely in view but another is partly covered the first object is perceived as being closer Relative size same sized objects that produce different sized retinal images perceived as being different distances from the eye Height objects at top of a visual field are perceived as being farther away ob jects at bottom appear to be closer Illusions incorrect perception Other perceptual influences Perceptual set a state of readiness to perceive certain info in a particular way Weapon focus Sensation auditory system The ear second most dominant sense after vision Hearing is initiated by pressure changes Outer ear Pinna visible part collects and routes sound inward toward middle ear Auditory canal sound moves down here and on to Wednesday February 26 2014 Tympanic membrane ear drum Middle ear vibrates conducts and causes three smallest bones in body to move Malleus hammer lncusanvH Stapes stirrup Conduction deafness due to damage to this part of earhearing aide Inner ear transmits sound to the brain damage here can cause hearing loss nerve deafness Results from excessive exposure to noises aging tumors head trauma and neurological infections Cochlea Basilar membranehair cellscilia Semicircular canalsinvolved in the sense of balance Tinnitus ringing in ears Stress anxiety allergies medications and medical prob lems Sensory adaption occurs after a person continually experiences a stimulus Sensation the chemical senses Smell and taste Olfactoryolfaction sense of smell increases our ability to enjoy food Smell re sponds to airborne molecules and is chemically activated Women have better sense of smell Gustationgustatory taste each bump contains 245 taste buds Pheromones chemical communicators released by many species to signal sexu al receptivity Perception vs Awareness Subliminal perception is influenced by a stimulus below the absolute threshold Subliminal communication suggests the body can physiologically respond to a visu ally presented stimulus even though we are unable to say what was actually pre sented Wednesday February 26 2014 Parapsychology paranormal phenomena Extrasensory perception ESP perception without any apparent sensory input Mental telepathy mind to mind communication send messages to another by ex trasensory means Clairvoyance ability to perceive remote events without having any sensory knowl edge about them Precognition ability to perceive future events Psychokinesis mind over matter mentally influence external events Ganzfeld experiments according to many parapsych These experiments provide scientific proof of telepathyclairvoyance
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