Introduction to Biopsychology
Introduction to Biopsychology PSYCH 2230
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Reichel I on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 2230 at Cornell University taught by D. Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/214347/psych-2230-cornell-university in Psychlogy at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Intro to Biopsychology Functional Neuroanatomy Lecture 2 7 August 24 Big themes in Neuroscience 0 Everything in neuroscience is more complicated O Neuroscience is almost never simple Because there are Lots of ways to solve tasks it makes it seem like brain is redundant There are almost always multiple factors that influence processes In neuroplasticity the brain is changeable and malleable So anything you learn causes a physical change in the brain You cannot help it Change is the rule there are no exceptions Our neural systems change in varying ways It changes through our whole lifespan through experience through learning etc 0 Everything is connected to everything else in neuroscience Because of this changes in one system can cause changes in another system 0 O The Neuron O The neuron has a cell body Inside the cell body is a nucleus and DNA Neurons are highly specialized for communication with each other Dendrites grow off of cell body The dendrites are input zone They receive all signals The axon is the output structure of neuron OOO Clusters of Neurons O Neurons tend to organize themselves in sheets or clusters 0 Clumps of neurons are referred to as nucleus if they are in the central nervous system or ganglion if they are in the peripheral nervous system 0 They are however some exceptions to the terminology Major Division of the Nervous System 0 The central nervous system is the brain and spinal cord 0 The peripheral nervous system is the nerves that lead from spinal cord Peripheral nervous System 0 There are two different ways of classifying the peripheral nervous system One is by the nerves I Cranial nerves are nerves that enter the nervous system via the brain Spinal nerves are nerves that enter the nervous system enter via the spinal cordspine O The second way to classify the peripheral nervous system is by function I The somatic nerves control body muscles and sensory information I The autonomic nervous system runs automatically without conscious control digestion breathing etc Cranial Nerves O Cranial nerves exit the nervous system and control the musculature of the head and face They then carry sensory information back to brain 0 The vagus nerve controls heart rate and digestion O The cranial nerves exit the skull and control the viscera of the body Spinal nerves 0 The spinal nerves carry information about the limbs and the trunk These nerves enter and exit the spinal cord 0 Nerves are bundles of axons Intro to Biopsychology Functional Neuroanatomy Lecture 2 7 August 24 O The ventral nerves carry motor commands out of the spine and information out of the body 0 Dorsal roots are sensory neurons They carry sensory information into spine and into the brain 0 The spinal cord has a protective covering which is made of three layers The pia mater inner arachnoid middle dura mater outer cover the spinal cord and brain Together these are called the meninges O Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges it can be caused by viruses or bacteria Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Division The sympathetic division is the system that controls dilated pupils and salivation This system that becomes activated during flight or fight It also inhibits salivation increases sweating heart rate and breathing It is called the sympathetic nervous system because of sympathetic chain ganglia which allows whole system to go off all at once Autonomic Nervous System Parasympathetic Division This is the quotRest and digestquot system It is active when nothing really important is going on This system stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat Opponent Processes There are sometimes opposing processes in the nervous system When system 1 says do X another system says do Y For example the cardiac accelerator nerve accelerates heart rate while the vagus nerve decelerates the heart rate If the vagus nerve is cut the heart rate instantly speeds up and vice versa Opponent processes allows the body to instantly shift from one position to another Anatomical Planes The horizontal plane divides the body into top and bottom halves The saggital plane divides body into left and right halves The coronal plane divides the body into frontback halves Anatomical Terms Anterior and posterior refer to front and back respectively Medial means toward the midline of the body while lateral means away from the midline For animals rostral means towards the nose and caudal means towards the tail Major Division of Brain The forebrain has cerebral hemispheres cortex basal ganglia limbic system and diencephalon thalamus and hypothalamus The midbrain have important neurotransmitters The hindbrain is made up of the cerebellum pons medulla External Structure 0 The brain mushrooms during development There are four lobes in the brain The front lobe is situated in the front of the brain The parietal lobe is at the top of the brain The occcipital lobe is at the back of the brain The temporal lobe is at the sides of the brain 0 The brain is wrinkly to increase surface area You may notice wrinkles in the brain The inward going wrinkles are called salcus The outward going wrinkles are called gyri gyrus singular Intro to Biopsychology Functional Neuroanatomy Lecture 2 7 August 24 O The corpus callosum is the bundle of fibers that connects neurons from each side of the brain 0 The gray matter of the brain are cells and neurons The white matter contains lipids and fats They are part of the myelin All the white matter in the brain are axons O The ventricles of the brain are fluid filed spaces Fiber Axon Tracts You can see millions of axons under brain when outer cortex is cut away Basal ganglia Caudate Nucleus The caudate nucleus is buried deep in cerebral hemisphere Limbic System Hippocampus The hippocampus is important for memory Vasculature Blood Supply If you remove a brain from a skull you will see shiny stuff that seems to be covering it That is pia mater You will also see lots of blood vessels in the brain Vascular pathology Aneurysm Sometimes blood can swell in a vessel If it bursts it becomes a stroke An ischemic stroke is a clot in blood vessel that stops blood from getting to an area