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Human Anatomy

by: Rigoberto Kuhic

Human Anatomy BMS 208

Rigoberto Kuhic
GPA 3.61

Christopher Noto

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Christopher Noto
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rigoberto Kuhic on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 208 at Grand Valley State University taught by Christopher Noto in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/214356/bms-208-grand-valley-state-university in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.

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Date Created: 09/26/15
BMS 20803 Lecture Notes 9210 Cells and Embryology Robert Hooke 11635 1703 First to coin the name cell based on his observations of cork Published Micrographia in 1665 Contributed to Cell Theory True Renaissance Man The Cellular Level of Organization A Brief Review An adult human body contains about 75 trillion cells Each cell type about 200 in the body performs speci c functions All cells perform the general functions necessary to sustain life Obtain nutrients and other materials essential for survival from its surrounding uids Dispose of the wastes they produce Undergo cell division Plasma Membrane Communicates receptors and molecular signals Intercellular Connection boundary protection support Physical Barrier Separates inside from outside Regulation Ion entry exit nutrients waste molecules Cilia and Flagella Appendages extending from some cells Cilia usually occur in large numbers they work together to move materials or uids along the surface of a cell Flagella are longer than cilia and usually occur as single appendages Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton Cytoplasm is a general term for all the cellular contents located between the plasma membrane and the nucleus Cytoskeleton comprised of filamentous proteins give cell shape and coordinates cell movement Microfilaments intermediate laments microtubules Organelles o Organelles are complex organized structures with unique characteristic shapes 0 Each type of organelle performs a different function for the cell BMS 20803 Lecture Notes 9210 Cells and Embryology o Collectively the specialized functions of all organelles are essential for normal cellular structure and activities The Nucleus Control center largest structure in the cell Enclosed by the nuclear envelope double membrane controls entry exit between the nucleus and the cytoplasm Contains the nucleolus i produce ribosomes Contains chromosomes Smooth and Rough ER Factory for chemical reactions and Warehouse for products RER Synthesis of proteins plasma membrane lysosomes SER Synthesis of steroid and fatty acids drug detoxi cation Ribosomes Free and fixed RER Produces by nucleoli Small dense granules that produce proteins Made up of two subunits Golgi Apparatus Shipping facility for excreted cell products Receives products from ERsribosomes Sorts products for transport to plasma membrane Packages enzymes for lysosomes Mitochondria Power plant of the cell has own DNA and appears to have evolved symbiotic relationship Organelle with own double membrane Produces ATP adenosine triphosphate which powers the cell 7 and the body more to come Peroxisomes vesicles containing degrative enzymes breakdown fats Lysosome digestive enzymes which remove damaged organelles Two general classes of cells Sex cells Germ cells BMS 20803 Lecture Notes 9210 Cells and Embryology Small proportion of total cells Sperm males Oocytes females Haploid contain 12 the necessary genetic information Fusion results in fertilization Somatic cells Somabody Most cells in body Diploid 2X the genetic information Importance of embryology Basic Understanding of the Processes that Underlie the Adult Morphology Phenotype Study of Normal Development to Understand Deviation Developmental Defects Shared Experience of All Vertebrates 7 We Have All Gone Through This we just may not remember it Background to embryology PreFertilization Each gamete ovum or sperm contains half of a full complement of chromosomes Haploid The consequence of fertilization is a full complement of chromosomes Diploid Embryogenesis is the process of embryo formation Week 18 Changing views over the centuries Two 39 39 to Prevent Fertilization bv Multiple Sperms Fast Block Slow Block Earlv Cell Division ngote t0 Embrvo The Blastocyst The blastocyst consists of 7 A outer layer of cells termed the trophoblast 7 An inner mass of cells called the inner cell mass ICM 7 A space filled with uid called the blastocyst cavity blastocoel Timing and Intra Uterine Travel F quot of 39 quot Ectopic Pre nancv BMS 20803 Lecture Notes 9210 Cells and Embryology 39 39 quot and the 39 quot 39 disc Embryo implants N 1 week ICM develops into Epiblast Becomes primary germ layers Hypoblast Forms boundary for primitive streak These two layers combined are the bilaminar disc The primitive streak and gastrulation The amniotic cavity forms above the bilaminar disc The primitive streak forms as a groove in the epiblast Forms during the 3rd week of development Gastrulation proliferation and migration of cells Cells form middle 3rd primary germ layer The trilaminar embryonic disc Comprised of Ectoderm epiblast layer Mesoderm epiblast cells through the primitive streak Endoderm epiblast that displaces hypoblast The Formation of the Notochord How to Make a Human from a Disc Mesoderm either side of dorsal midline coalesces to form 31 paired blocks called somites Each somite divides into three portions Somites and their derivatives effectively segments the body Each segment not only has its own bone muscle and skin segment 7 but also its own nerve that supplies that unit At the same time Dorsal ectoderm invaginates to form groove Edges of groove fuse to become the neural tube and moves cranially and caudally BMS 20803 Lecture Notes 91410 Integumentary System The Integument Largest organ in the human body visceral vs nonvisceral 0 Two components Cutaneous membrane skin Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Accessory structures Hair Nails Exocrine glands Functions Protection Prevents loss of body uids Inhibits invasion of bacteriaetc Filters UV light Thermal regulation Sweat glands loss of water salt urea Lipid storage Vitamin D synthesis Perception Mechanoreceptorsl Pacinian corpuscle Detects deep pressure in reticular layers of dermis M eissner s corpuscle Detects pressure light touch in dermal papilla Divisions of the Integument Epidermis Composed of keratinized strati ed squamous epithelium Thick vs thin skin palmarplantar Dermis Papillary layer 7 areolar connective tissue proper Reticular layer 7 dense irregular connective tissue Hypodermis Loose connective tissue proper adipose BMS 20803 Lecture Notes 91410 Integumentary System Epidermis Strati ed squamous epithelium of 4 5 named layers Can be keratinized or nonkeratinized Keratin is a structural protein high keratin horns Minimizes water loss Avascular tissue 9 many of the cells are dead Nerve endings sense pain and ne touch Thickness ranges from 01 mm to 2 mm Deepest layer Stratum basale stratum germinativum Layer of stem cells on the basement membrane mitotic Continual cell diVision with daughter cells pushed to the next layer keratinocytes Ridges from underlying dermis form friction ridges ngerprints Contains melanocytes 7 melanin synthesis and storage Next layer Stratum Spinosum 56 layers of cells with spiny cytoplasmic extensions Some cell diVision does occur in layer Contain epidermic dendritic Langerhans cells macrophages for immune response Next layer Stratum granulosum 25 cell layers that produce keratin and keratohyalin Keratohyalin limits dehydration crosslinks keratin bers Organelles of cells start to disintegrate apoptosis Aids in water retention Next layer Stratum lucidum Layer only found in thick skin regions palmarplantar Glassy layer of at cells packed with keratin Most super cial layer Stratum corneum Varying number of indiVidual cell layers Tightly packed dead keratinized cells no cytoplasm Continuously shed 7 constantly replaced Anatomy of Pigmentation Skin color is derived from three pigments Carotene Least common orangeyellow pigment from diet BMS 20803 Lecture Notes 91410 Integumentary System Hemoglobin Pigment of blood varies with oxygen content Color tinges epidermis from dermis Melanin Eumelaninbrownpheomelaninred Most common pigment produced by melanocytes in stratum basale Primary determinant of variability in skin color density amount distribution Chr 16 MC 1 R protein mutation l246 Glands of the Integument Apocrine sweat gland Merocrine secretion Found in axilla anal groin regions and around nipples Secrete a sticky cloudy and odorous secretion onto hair follicles Secretion provides nutrient source for bacteria MerocrineEccrine sweat gland Merocrine secretion Widely scattered over body surface Secrete water electrolytes and metabolites onto the surface Evaporation cools skin and body Sebaceous sweat gland Holocrine secretion Produce sebum lipid triglycerides cholesterol proteins electrolytes into hair follicle to lubricate hair and skin Most active late in fetal development and puberty Mammary glands Evolved from modified sebaceous glands D 39 I and quot quot J by pituitary and sex hormones Ceruminous glands Located in external ear Secretes cerumen ear wax Dermis Dense irregular connective tissue layer Transmit nerves and receptors for pain temperature touch pressure and vibration Contains all vessels supplying skin Thickness 2 mm 0 Two separate layers Papillary layer Reticular layer Papilla layer BMS 20803 Lecture Notes 91410 Integumentary System Loose connective tissue forming dermal papillae More pronounced on palms and soles to form surface ridges on epidermis Contain capillary beds and nerve endings Reticular layer Deepest layer of dense irregular connective tissue Bundles of collagen bers extend through reticular layer and hypodermis Elastin in layer effected by UV age hormones Errector arrector pili muscles Smooth muscles from papillary region to hair follicle Piloerection Hypodermis Loose and adipose connective tissue Varying amounts of adipocytes that connects underlying muscle and bone to the dermis Contains large blood vessels Special Structures of the Epidermis Nails Hard derivatives of the epidermis that form on the dorsal surfaces of the tips of the fingers and toes Composed of heavily comified cells that develop from a specialized region of stratum comeum called nail matrix Humans have broad at nails that protect the distal phalanges from damage distortion during manipulation activity Hair Extends across entire body except palmarplantar surfaces sides of digits lips portions of external genitalia Most hair on body 7 not on your head same per inch as Part Offers Protection Thermoregulation Chemical signal dispersal Secondary sexual characteristics Hair Follicle


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