Digestion 9/16-9/18 1005
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zoe Lipner on Wednesday September 24, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see Biology of Nutrition & Health in Biosystem Engineering at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/24/14
Digestion 92414 606 PM Things to examine on a food label Look for trans fats Look at the list of ingredients the order means how much Amount of sodium Amount of sugars Artificial coloring Flavor enhancers Hydrolyzed protein is How bad are trans fats Trans fats change the ratio of the two types of cholesterols in our blood increasing the risk of heart disease Experts estimate that trans fats contribute to 30000 100000 deaths per year from heart disease Trans fats can be found in any foods containing hydrogenated oils Vitamins Needed in tiny amounts o Help regulate metabolism o Delivery agents 0 Signaling molecules o Protect against rogue substances Vitamins organic molecules o Water soluble Vitamin C and Vitamin B 8 types Fat soluble 0 Vitamins A D E and K o Vitamin D only vitamin the body manufactures Obtained from food Most animals cannot manufacture all of the vitamins needed by the body Humans are among a few species that cannot manufacture vitamin C Vitamin D is the only vitamin that humans can synthesize yet most people get inadequate amounts Essential minerals Macrominerals 0 Sodium calcium phosphorus magnesium chlorine potassium and sulfur 0 Make up 6 of body weight Trace elements 0 Make up less than 1 o of body weight 0 Small amount but important functionally Iodine and iron are examples Lower class elements Potassium 9 nerve function CalciumMagnesium 9 bones Phosphorous 9 building blocks Trace elements 0 Iodine thyroid 0 Metabolic reactions Iron hemoglobin 0 Oxygen transport Fluoride teeth 0 Enamel maintenance and tooth decay Cobalt anemia 0 As a doping agent Nutrition Nutrients play critical roles to 0 Provide chemical building blocks 0 Provide energy 0 Facilitate reactions Animals are consumers 0 Nutrition from other organisms 0 Released by digestion Strategies to grow troph Photoautotroph Chemoautotroph Photoheterotroph Chemoheterotroph ie humans Energy source 9 light energy photo 9 chemical energy chemo Carbon source 9 inorganic CO2 auto 9 organic hetero All Living Cells Require Nutrients Metabolism Metabolic pathways 0 Assemble o Disassemble Enzymes are biomolecules that speed up chemical reactions by acting as biological catalysts Metabolism Anabolic Dehydration synthesis o Biosynthetic create complex molecules out of smaller compounds Catabolic Hydrolysis 0 Break down complex molecules by adding water to release energy The Structure of Enzymes Very specific for reactions Three dimensiona shape determines function Reduces energy required by changing shape Active site is region where the substrate binds o Induced fit active site molds around substrate Absorption in the Digestive System Carbohydrates o Monosaccharaides Proteins 0 Amino acids Fats o Monoglycerides 0 Fatty acids The Human Digestive System Tubular passageway Glands Epithelial cells Physical and chemical digestion Structures of the Digestive System Mouth salivary glandsteethtongue Esophagus o Sphincter Stomach chyme o Pyloric sphincter Small intestine o Livergallbladder o Pancreas Large intestine Mouth and pharynx Mechanical 0 Mastication 9 teeth grind the food 0 The tongue moves the food around Chemical o Salivary amylase produced by the salivary glands 0 Taste buds 9 salty sweet sour bitter umami meatiness Taste buds indicate if you should be eating the food or notinform the rest of the digestive system to make appropriate enzymes for the food you39re eating The 5 tastes tell the rest of your digestive system what you39re eating Flavor taste smell and memory Absorption Esophagus Transports the food to your stomach Peristalsis o Wave ike motion where the muscles are contracting to move the food in one direction Acid Reflux AKA Gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD Sphincter doesn39t close properly Heartburn is a result Stomach Mechanical 0 Rugae 9 folds of the stomach move the food around 0 Pyloric sphincter 9 at the bottom moves food to the small intestine Chemical 0 Hydrochloric acid 9 acid produced to lower the pH and denature proteins 0 Pepsin enzyme 9 breaks down proteins 0 Mucus 9 makes a slicker area so the food can move through Absorption 0 Alcohol and drug absorption Small Intestine Mechanical Chemical 0 Chyme 9 partially digested o Pancreas 9 basic substance neutralizes acid from the stomach Ca rbohyd rases Lipases Proteinases 0 Liver 9 produces bile and stores it in the gallbladder Bile is like soap 9 pulls apart lipids to allow the lipases to break them down Absorption o Villi 9 folds in the surface of the tube itself Fingerlike projections Brush border 9 brushesabsorbs substances 0 Microvilli 9 folds in the cells themselves