New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exploring the Earth

by: Natalia Littel

Exploring the Earth GEO 111

Natalia Littel
GPA 3.57

Linda Davis

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Linda Davis
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Geology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalia Littel on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 111 at Grand Valley State University taught by Linda Davis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/214367/geo-111-grand-valley-state-university in Geology at Grand Valley State University.


Reviews for Exploring the Earth


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/26/15
Things you should know and be able to answer thoughtful questions about Seafloor Rivers and Floods the value of the lab work will be evident Deformation and mountain building folds syncline synform anticline antiform age relationships keep in mind that given a series of sedimentary rock layers that are undeformed they were lain down horizontally the layers at the bottom are oldest and the layers get progressively younger as you go upwards in a section of rock Now if you have age relationships you can talk about anticlines and synclines otherwise antiforms and synforms Folds can be plunging and if they plunge then they are recognizable on a map by the noses of the foldsUsualy the folds occur in pairs synclines and anticlines and they all plunge the same way butthe noses of anticlines and synclines close in opposite directions Limbs of folds hingelines overturned folds dip of the limbs what s the strike of the beds that make up the folds simply the direction parallel to the contacts between the different layers that are folded Folds 1 Caused by compression quotSynclinesquot are concave troughlike folds in rock strata quotAnticlinesquot are convex archlike folds in rock strata The quotAxial planequot is an imaginary plane that divides a fold into two nearly equal halves Symmetrical vs asymmetrical overturned recumbent plunging special folds 6 A structural quotDomequot is a round or oval shaped bulge on the Earth s surface that in cross section resembles an anticline 7 A structural quotBasinquot is a bedrock depression that in cross section resembles a syncline SIM59 Ill Faults 1 Introduction 1 Fractures caused by a variety of stresses 2 quotFaultsquot are rock fractures along which marked relative movement has occurred 1 Fault blocks 2 Fault plane 2 Types of faults E In quotStrike slipquot faults fault block movement is relatively horizontal parallel to the strike of the fault plane 1 Caused by shearing stress 2 Example San Andreas fault In quotDip slipquot faults fault block movement is relatively vertical parallel to the dip ofthe fault plane causing steps in the landscape 1 Hanging wall 2 Foot wall 3 Normal faults Hanging wall moves downward Caused by tension Occurs at mid ocean ridges and continental rifts Grabens are depressions formed when a fault block drops in between normal faults Horsts are the blocks that remain above on either side of a graben 4 Reverse faults Hanging wall moves upward Caused by compression Occurs at convergent plate boundaries Thrust faults if at low nearly horizontal angles IV Building Mountains quot 1 Mountain building is called quotorogenesisquot 2 Types and processes of mountain building 1 Volcanic mountains 2 quotFault blockquot mountains are bounded on at least one side by high angle normal faults Description Basin and Range province quotFold and thrustquot mountains form where continental collisions cause exceptionally high mountain systems Description Examples 4 quotUpwarped mountainsquot are formed when a large area of the Earth s crust is gently bent into broad regional uplifts without much apparent rock deformation Description Adirondack mountains UJ Mountain building on other planets 2 Lunar mountains caused by meteoritic impacts 3 Martian mountains caused by volcanism 4 Venetian mountains caused by Earth like processes Deep Sea Floor The ocean bottom is divided into three major areas the continental shelf the continental slope and the deep ocean basin The continental shelf extends underwater from each ofthe major land masses It is the submerged portion of the continents The shelf has features similar to those we see on land including hills ridges and canyons The size ofthe shelf varies It may be virtually non existent in some areas elsewhere it may extend from shore for several hundred miles The shelf s average distance is about 64 kilometers 40 mi It is beyond the continental shelf that the quotdeep seaquot begins The shelf ends at a depth of about 200 meters 660 ft giving way to the steeper continental slope which descends about 3700 meters 12000 ft to the deep ocean basin Here the ocean floor deepens sharply and its features again resemble those on land only on a much larger scale with great plains and mountains In fact the Earth s longest mountain range lies under the sea Over 56000 kilometers 35000 mi long this mountain range called the Mid Ocean Ridge system snakes its way around the globe The Mid Ocean Ridge marks the areas where the Earth s crustal plates are moving apart It is one of the most geologically active areas on Earth It is where new seafloor is being born giving rise to hydrothermal vents and volcanoes Volcanic arcs and oceanic trenches partly encircling the Pacific Basin form the so called Ring of Fire a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions The trenches are shown in blue green The volcanic island arcs although not labelled are parallel to and always landward of the trenches For example the island arc associated with the Aleutian Trench is represented by the long chain of volcanoes that make up the Aleutian Islands How Deep lsihe 0 oean The deepest known point on Earth is at the bottom ofthe Mariana Trench a depression in the floor of the western Pacific Ocean just east ofthe Mariana Islands The Mariana Trench is 1554 miles long and 44 miles wide Near its southwestern extremity 210 miles southwest of Guam lies the deepest point on Earth This point referred to as the quotChallenger Deepquot plunges to a depth of nearly 7 miles h 19601116 Trieste a manned submersible owned by the US Navy descended to the bottom of the Mariana


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.