Origins of Civilization
Origins of Civilization ANT 215
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caleigh Murazik on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 215 at Grand Valley State University taught by Mark Schwartz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see /class/214374/ant-215-grand-valley-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Anthropology 215 The Origins of Civilization Mark Schwartz PhD schwamargvsuedu Anthropology Defining Anthropology Socialcultural anthropology Physical or biological anthropology Archaeology Linguistic Anthropology Archaeology Myth y o 39 39 105 KIRK Archaeology Reality Goals for the course An appreciation forthe remarkable human achievements found all over the world A greater understanding of human prehistory An ability to put our own civilization in a crosscultural context An understanding of how civilizations rise and fall 5609 Archaeology Natural human desire to understand our past to nd out about our recent past we can consult written sources Writing is a very recent invention rst developed in Mesopotamia 5000 years ago archaeology the study of the human past through material culture material culture anything made or modi ed by humans Anthropological Anthropology AnthrArch Focuses on human culture quotCulturequot the set of beliefs symbols knowledge an rules w ich are shared and guide the way humans act as members of ociety Goals of Archaeology Reconstruct culture history Reconstruct past lifeways Explaining why cultural change has taken place the emergence of Homo sapiens the origins of agriculture and the origins of civilizations These changes seem to have taken place independently in different parts ofthe world parallel processes of change Why did they happen at the times and places where they didquot 5609 Culture History Period 19th to Early 20th Century Reconstructing Culture History chronologic sequence of cultures change is explained by diffusion Thompson3 Ages of Human History Stone Age Bronze Age and Iron Age Archaeological Theory Processualism the New Archaeology Postprocessualism Processualism New Archaeology research design and the scientific method to analyze conditions of cultural change Focused not on who and what but WHY Archaeologists excavate to answer a SPECIFIC research question Postprocessualism Saw a need to address cognitive factors from a perspective that wasn t necessarily based in science Examples Feminist views on artifact assemblages Brumfiel Locating Archaeological Sites Accidentally lceman1991 found y hikers Lascaux Cave paintings found by 2 boys A 39icanAmerican Slave Cemete 39 NYC found during construction Archaeological Survey Archaeological urvery Systematic attempts to locate identify and record the distribution of archaeological sites 5609 5609 Te Tel Tepe Yaha occupation mound found in the Near East Locating Archaeological Sites Archaeological Survey 391 quotc Paeoithic and Neolithic sites Key indicators ecIaI Conspicuous earthworks stone techniques ruins Vegetational cover Soil discolorations Surface finds of artifacts bones etc Aerial Remote Sensing Google Earth 5609 5609 V r n 39 a k am 4quot E MlJunkquot A hawkmum m n um um Mumwean WW Wmmunumd I A human W7 WMWMN gt r I Tm uninagkdumm Samana in Iraq
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