Week 2 - 9/8/14 to 9/12/14.pdf
Week 2 - 9/8/14 to 9/12/14.pdf CAS PS101 H1
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Atene Poskute on Wednesday September 24, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to CAS PS101 H1 at Boston University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Boston University.
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Date Created: 09/24/14
9 8 14 Behavioral Perspective Behavior cause external environment El 0 O O 0 Knowledge is gained Empirically Psychology should study only observable responses not unobservable mental processes 90 of research done on animals organism comes into the world with fixed action patterns I how to eat drink cry blink move etc Empiricism O O O Iohn Locke 16321704 At birth the mind a tabula rasa blank slate upon which experience is written Empirical knowledge knowledge that is gained from the senses objective data Behaviorism O 0 Ivan Pavlov 18491936 I Pavlov and his dogs I Salvation experiment thought early salvation based on signal was messing up his experiment I Started using neutral stimuli random signals to associate with food I Physician not psychologist Environment shapes behavior through association of events with one another Classical Conditioning learning based on associations between events I Respond to one as if it were the other I Don39t choose to feeling not voluntary so you do the behavior following this feeling I Involuntary reaction to stimulus 9 voluntary behavior I Elicit involuntary evoke I In the real world known as anticipation as if something is coming Edward Thorndike 18741949 I Environment shapes behavior through consequences of actions I Thorndike s Law of Effect 1911 393 Behaviors followed by satisfying consequences become more likely to recur 393 Behaviors followed by unsatisfying consequences become less likely to recur 393 You don39t keep doing something unless there is a payoff for you BF Skinner 19041990 I No account of what is happening inside the human body no matter how complete will explain the origins of human behavior I Operant Conditioning learning based on consequences of actions I Need to understand that consequences follow a behavior 0 ohn Watson 18781958 I Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It 1913 I Only subject matter in Psychology was observable behavior I You can classically condition emotions fear was the first 393 You can take a neutral thing to signal a bad feeling 393 Bad manners Little Albert 393 Always a stimulus to evoke a feeling in advertisement Spokesperson usually used models babies famous people Red stimulates appetite men think sexiest color associated with power fast food restaurants Italian restaurants White does the opposite Chinese restaurants Cognitive behaviorism 0 Learning in uences our thoughts and expectations 0 Expectations and thoughts guide our behavior 0 How do you think Freud ideas gone psychoanalysis not even offered to study anymore cognitive is much more comment as well as behaviorism and bio 393 Humanist perspective Emphasizes 0 Free will 0 Innate human tendency toward growth 0 The attempt to find meaning in one s existence I Because humans are the only ones that know that they are going to die 0 Conscious awareness here and now Only in the 60s did people really start thinking of what they want and what makes them happy 91014 continuation of98 Karl Rogers started humanist perspective 0 Gave techniques for talk therapy aka psychotherapy I Psychoanalysis is a specific type of talk therapy Abraham Maslow 19081970 0 Self actualization 0 Needs hierarchy o People have this inherent tendency to grow and change I The way that we do it is that we need to get all of our needs met o Maslow s hierarchical pyramid insert image I If some need here is not met you are deficient I People need social outlets and pertain to social networks should not be alone sanity suffers actuallzatlon morality creativity spontaneity acceptance experience purpose meaning and inner potential MASLOW39S MOTIVATION MODEL Cognitive Needs Esteem Needs Belonging and Love Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs I When most of these needs are met then they become self actualized Most people don39t get self actualized Overall humanism has had less impact on psychological science than other perspectives Nevertheless o Humanists pioneered Modern Positive Psychology Movement o Dan Gilbert Harvard speaker o Incorporates humanism s focus on growth and self actualization I Examines 393 Human strengths 393 Fulfillment 393 Optimal living Cognitive Perspective Cause ofbehavior thought processes How cognitive mental processes in uence behavior How we o Perceive o Organize o Store information in our brains o Study a little bit of language as well View human beings as information processors Memory is exible slippery elusive Have a biological base but it39s difficult to find 0 No memory center stored all over your brain 0 The center for activity for memory though is the hippocampus I Latin for sea horse I Hippocampus looks like a seahorse I We have two left amp right I Inch towards center from each ear o The memory of one occurrence will be found in different spots in your brain based on the sense required to recall it Then your brain has to put them all together hence slippery Gestalt Psychology o Gestalt whole I Opposite of structuralism o The whole is more than the sum of its parts 0 Led to cognitive psychology investigation of perception problem solving intelligence artificial intelligence Modern Cognitive Science o Biology o Mathematics o Linguistics 0 Computer science Cognitive Neuroscience o Electrical recording o Brain imaging techniques to examine brain activity while people perform cognitive tasks Sociocultural Perspective Cause of behavior cultural environment Emphasizes how environment and cultural learning affect behavior thoughts and feelings Social norms 0 Rules for acceptable and expected behavior for members of the group or within the group 0 Can also specify appropriate behavior based on gender I How to dress I Women say I39m sorry a lot more 0 Not written down Socialization 0 The process by which culture is transmitted to new members and internalized by them 9 12 14 Sociocultural Perspective cont Cross Cultural psychology examines o Socialization in cultures 0 Similarities amp differences between people of different cultures 0 Extent to which cultures stress Individualism amp Collectivism I Individualism 393 Emphasis on personal goals and self 393 Based on individual achievement 393 USA UK Western Europe etc I Collectivism 393 Individual goals subordinated to the group 393 Personal identity defined by ties to family and group 393 China Cuba North Korea based on politics 393 Russia Eastern Asia etc I Money plays a role 393 As countries gain more wealth goes from more collective to more individualistic I Current generation becoming more individualistic Biological perspective Cause of behavior 0 Neurotransmitters o Hormones 0 Genes 0 Evolution Examines biological in uences on behavior including brain hormonal genetic and evolutionary process Behavioral Neuroscience Karl Lashley 1890 1958 0 Research led to brain mapping o Asked Where do we learn where in the brain is the information stored I Searched for engram 0 Made slices in brain for his experiment 0 Doesn39t matter where in the brain the damage it occurs just how much damage occurs I Not true maybe in a rat but not in humans Donald Hebb 1904 1985 0 Also tried to figure out where is the learning in the brain 0 Neurotransmitters Chemicals released by neurons that allow them to communicate with each other or cause action Answer Where is the learning 0 In between the synapse 0 Learning amp memory found in changes at level of the synapse o Called Hebbian learning 0 Learning amp memory stored in connections between neurons Classic Neurotransmitters Big 6 o Serotonin SHT I Regulates your mood I Regulates appetites arserchanian rhythms 393 Sex sleep hunger thirst I Regulates temperature 0 Dopamine DA I Makes you happy I Dopamine reward pathway 393 Maintains addictions I Involved in movement allows you to move 393 Allows a group of muscles to coordinate amp work together I There are many different types I Motivator in general 0 Norepinephrine NE nor adrenaline I Heighten response to stimuli 393 Essential to fight or ight mode 393 Formulate a plan I Ex cocaine ADD drugs I Motivator when you need something like studying running away etc o Epinephrine EP adrenaline I Heighten response to stimuli 393 Essential to fight or ight mode 393 Actual fight or ight o Acetylcholine ACH I Low levels in Alzheimer39s patients I In great doses it affects your memory Need it to make memories Symptom not cause Helps proper liver function 393 Liver biggest processor for every chemical that enters body Movement allows any and all muscles to contract or expand involuntary movement 0 GABA amp Glutamate Gama Amino Buteric Acid Behavioral Genetics Examines how genetic factors in uence behavioral tendencies Army used to give intelligence tests 0 We use the same tests Where is the spot in the brain that controls everything 0 No one spot Where is the learning done What39s responsible 0 Genes or environment Concordant twin studies 0 Concordance rates in twins level of agreement 0 Batch of identical twins batch of non identical twins Break pedal Inhibitory slows stuff down In 13 of all neurons No racing thoughts slows heart rate down Controls thoughts to slow down movement impulses Allows to not overshoot something Involved in alcohol 393 Cognitive ability 393 Motor processes 393 Lot of GABA is released Glutamate 393 Counter part to GABA B 40 393 gas pedal 393 excitatory neurotransmitter 393 Paired with release of dopamine 393 With alcohol foot taken off gas pedal If difference present with more similarities in identical then genes must have an effect Still have shared environment skewed Study identical children living apart Synchronicity if these twins still have insane similarities even with living in different environments 393 Happens to a scary degree 393 Means there is a genetic degree at work 393 Genes even affect smoking Adoption studies Evolutionary psychology Natural Selection o A process proposed by Darwin to explain how species evolve in response to their environment Start Ch 4 next time finished Ch 1
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