SEX&GENDER IN SOCIE
SEX&GENDER IN SOCIE SOC 327
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vance Bahringer on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 327 at Iowa State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/214461/soc-327-iowa-state-university in Sociology at Iowa State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Roy on Masculinity Masculinity and manhood have had many meanings some in opposition to others At some times and places masculinity has been associated with physical strength at others with restraint and civility Manhood has been associated with homosocial men only gangs and friendship groups or alternatively with strong family ties Real men have been those whose independence chafes at all conformity to authority or alternatively those who respectfully accept their station in life This historical variation further attests to the socially constructed rather than naturally given character of masculinity A key development in constructing manhood was the creation of nation states which resulted in the legal control of marriage and the connection between masculinity and military prowess Development of manhood in America Useful man early America Manhood meant serving the community Humility was a virtue Self made man 19th century Manhood meant cultivating individual talent and upward social mobility This de nition was connected to the public sphere and to bodily restraint sobriety propriety etc The crisis of masculinity 20th century The rise of the office job challenged the image of the self made man Organized sports and Scouting were two responses to this crisis Manhood began to be contrasted to femininity instead of boyhood The real man was also contrasted with the homosexual a new construction Homosocial behavior and affection became problematic Roy on the social construction of gender People are divided into gender but so are roles activities qualities traits emotions or objects eg doctoring leadership rage souped up cars child care cooperation sentimentality owers Cross cultural variation Other sex gender categories berdache male bodies but third gender Hijras intersexed males who become social women eunuchs males with genitals removed Yoruba malefemale bodies don t determine social position age is most important category Gender of behaviors varies Tahitians have few differences between men and women pronouns don t indicate sex Semai of Malaysia are all retiring and submissive History of gender Gender differences probably arose with tools and permanent settlements The shift to agricultural production led to reduction in women s economic roles and rise of patriarchy Dominant sex model in the West until recently was one sex model women were inferior version of men About 1800 Anglo Europeans reconceptualized how they imagined sex differences treating men and women not as superior and inferior versions of the same creature but as polar opposites Roy on Changing Gender in AngloEuropean Society In pre modern times women and men were more alike than they are now The modern sense of women being feminine as being weak soft emotional and in need of male protection was not common Roy thinks a key moment in defining women as subordinate was when a new class of celibate men gained control of the Catholic Church and educational institutions This led to the exclusion of women and married men from positions of leadership the defining of women as sexual temptresses and the association of celibacy with virility Modern Anglo European notions of femininity and masculinity arose with the separation of private and public life which was connected to capitalism moving workers out of their homes A woman s place is in the home femininity became associated with the holistic and emotional social relations of the private sphere and the authentic self which was a new construction It s a man s world masculinity means being objective rational nonemotional and able to play a specific role without getting too wrapped up personally Opposition to women s suffrage and the creation of Mother s Day must be understood within the framework of the separate spheres The fight for women s suffrage was successful because it embraced rather than challenged this construction
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