9/3 The State and Its Formation
9/3 The State and Its Formation PSC1001
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Date Created: 09/25/14
93 The State and Its Formaticm Key Terms state neopatrimonialism sovereignty bureaucraticrational state state building Definitions government leaders in office regime rules and norms of politics type of political system sovereignty over a particular area and the people in it politicallegal unit sovereignty over area always backed by force it is what American s call the government ultimate responsibility for and legal authority over the conduct of internal affairs including a claim to a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within territory defined by geographic borders international sovereignty the UN recognizes new states affects trade relationships alliances etc domestic sovereignty public consent social contract limit abilities for collective benefit citizens hold state responsible for actions international and domestic sovereignty don t always agree How do states differ Fukuyama Scope vs Strength scope size taxing power tax revenue indicator of scope of the state ex Nazi Germany vs WWII US the Nazis coudn t collect taxes the US could strength rule of law no chaos crime are policecourts effective effectiveness infrastructure social services ex Ebola crisis in Africa insufficient infrastructure Ebola outbreak is extremely hard to control b c of lack of adequate hospitals sanitation etc legitimacy states who have it work better you want to do something and other people want it too people are invested in making the state do something autonomy ability to define policy Patrimonial vs Bureaucraticrational Patrimonia personalistic rule government follows set of rules friends of leaders benefit based on meritocratic bureaucracy no meritocratic bureaucracy tends to be autonomous from groups clientism pay off unfriendly people Ex Zaire DRC patrimonial system spoils natural resources leaders amp co become rich while the country tanks strength at regime stronger state may be less repressive rulers use the spoils of office to maintain power State Formation Method of Difference Western Europe Sub Saharan Africa more bureaucratic rationa states now more neo patrimonial states birthplace of modern state Pre Colonial 15th 19th century states were not a natural entity low population density 15th 19th century modern states bc land is not worth fighting emerge for Key factors land is less valuable bc there arose out of anarchy is enough to go around high population density hard to control land bc low valuable land population density agricultural value lack of large scale conflicts over could sustain lots of people territory needed more land borders were very porous all of the above led to constant small scale wars were over things warfare people treasure etc not land constant warfare gt centralization of Colonial Period late 19th century political authority 1940s states need to be able to control lateshort their land before they can get no large scale conflicts more no incentives for control over need structure to tax for resources territory need infrastructure limited projection of power increased sophistication of warfare existed for resources only small entities fail gt bigger entities supported by the coastal location all leads to the emergence of of capital cities modern state exception settler countries states develop other capacities made to look like controlling encourage economic investment country accumulation of capital Results faster legitimacy war didn t make states states repressing people is inefficient didn t make war encourage nationalism see Decolonization in Sub sovereignty can do whatever but Saharan Africa not invade my territory long slow process leads to bureaucratic rationa states ideal Decolonization in Sub Saharan Africa 1945 state building difficulties see Samuels colonial legacies limited state apparatus little infrastructure no civil service heterogeneity incredibly diverse groups smushed together lack of legitimacy international environment sovereignty decided no interstate war Cold War countries policed by major powers Foreign aid bad supports bad governments contributes to patrimonialism government doesn t have to tax the people lack of infrastructure European powers divide and conquer pit opposing tribes against each other thus the arbitrary borders made states easier to control Europe didn t set Africa up for statehood they went in for resources and then got out European countries experienced challenges of terrain and projecting power just as African states do now Consequences weak nationalism weak taxing capability decreases legitimacy weak states lack scope lack strength Why so many neopatrimonialism states lack legitimacy weak bureaucracy gt easily colonized ethnic politics rich natural resources increased stakes of control of office Neopatrimonialism states are not strong prey on society economy lack legitimacy insurrection conflict
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