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Week 10 notes

by: Emma Notetaker

Week 10 notes NSCI 4510

Emma Notetaker
GPA 3.975

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week 10 of lecture notes
Biological Psychology
Dr. Colombo
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Notetaker on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NSCI 4510 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Colombo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Biological Psychology in Neuroscience at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 03/17/16
Thursday, March 17, 2016 Week 10 Memory Systems (cont.) • 3 main memory systems (can be dissociated, but not completely separate) • 1. hippocampus • 2. amygdala 3. dorsal striatum • • early evidence showed that these areas can be dissociated, but later evidence shows that there is an interaction • stress and time can cause a shift between memory systems • sometimes they compete, sometimes they cooperate • double dissociation experiments: hippocampal and striatal memory systems SEPARATE win-shift strategy: radio arm maze • • reward in arm, “win” by getting food reward • once the rat gets the food in one, has to go to the others • hippocampus-dependent: working memory • lesions in hippocampus impair this task • lesions in striatum have no effect on performance requires spatial, flexible and relational memory • • win-stay task: radial arm maze • there are cues in the maze - ex: light indicates presence of food • if the light is still in the same arm, can go back to that one to find more food • procedural/rule-based memory • based on striatum (lesions here impair this task) hippocampal lesions have no effect here • • triple dissociation experiment: • investigates roles of: • hippocampus: implicated flexible/relational memory • win-shift: each arm baited with food reward (if rat goes back into that arm, will be empty) optimal performance: goes into each arm once (8 choices) • • repeat this for several days • S-S: stimulus-stimulus (associations among stimuli - map tells you relationally where reward is) • fornix lesion: cuts connection to hippocampus • shows SOME improvement, but never get as good as the sham/controls sham lesion: no actual lesion (mimic the dramatic effects of the surgery) • • show lots of improvement, learn quickly • control animal: show lots of improvement, learn quickly • lesion to the lateral amygdala: do BETTER than controls (or no effect - unclear) • does not impair performance • lesion to dorsal striatum: striatum: implicated in procedural/rule-based memory • • win-stay: 4 lit arms, 4 unlit arms • after animal goes into lit arm once, light stays on • after going to the same lit arm twice, light goes off (to mimic 8 choices from win- shift) 1 Thursday, March 17, 2016 • S-R: stimulus response • simple rule: go to the lit arm dorsal striatum lesion: impairs performance • • sham lesion: no actual lesion (mimic the dramatic effects of the surgery) • fornix lesion: no difference • lateral amygdala lesion: • amygdala: implicated in EMOTIONAL memory • conditioned place preference animal placed in one arm with a pile of food (animal conditioned into a preference • for this location) • subsequent trial: put animal in an empty arm • later test: put animal in the middle to see if it goes to the correct arm • lateral amygdala lesion: impairs performance • fornix lesion: no effect dorsal striatum lesion: no effect • • sham lesion: no actual lesion (mimic the dramatic effects of the surgery) • no effect • control: no effect • response learning takes longer than place learning • plus maze: walls in shape of plus, put food somewhere place task: animal rewarded for returning to a place in space (independent of where you • start) • food remains in the same place • dependent on the hippocampus (lesions impair this) • response task: animal rewarded for turning a certain way • ex: food always to the right of wherever they start • dependent on striatum (rule-based) • place + response task (aka dual-response task) • animal can use either hippocampus OR striatum to solve the task (as a researcher, you don’t know which one the animals is using) • to test which one has been learned: probe trial • flip the maze • those who have been using response strategy will continue to turn the same way • those who have been using place strategy will go to the same place • Chang and Gold (2003) • trained animals on pace or response task • administered lidocaine (local anesthetic - blocks voltage-gated sodium channels) DIRECTLY to brain region • acts as a temporary lesion - blocks neurons in that area from firing (temporary inactivation) • artificial CSF: innane substance • place task: lidocaine into hippocampus impaired learning • expected • response task: lidocaine to hippocampus FACILITATES learning • unexpected (response task thought to be only dependent on striatum) • inactivation of hippocampus facilitates response learning • theory: hippocampus and striatum compete with each other for control of behavioral output • hippocampus leaves, can focus all attention on striatal task 2 Thursday, March 17, 2016 • —> interactive memory systems (NOT independent) • micro dialysis: in vivo method of studying neurotransmitter release chronically implant dialysis probe • • hooked up to machine that analyzes concentration of different metabolites • depending on membrane, certain bodies cross membrane • quantifies small amounts • can hook animal up, engage them in a task and see which neurotransmitters are coming into play McIntyre experiment: using micro dialysis • • conditioned cue preference task • measured ACh release in hippocampus • percent time in correct arm STRONGLY decreased with increasing baseline levels of ACh in hippocampus • worst memory: most ACh release in hippocampus taken as evidence of competition between amygdala and hippocampus • • active hippocampus: poor amygdala results • deactivated hippocampus: GOOD amygdala results • later measured ACh release in amygdala • used hippocampus-dependent task • more ACh in amygdala correlated with BETTER learning on hippocampus-dependent task • evidence that amygdala activity facilitates other areas • hippocampus competes with both striatum and amygdala - suppression allows for better performance in tasks that require other areas • amygdala can cooperate with hippocampus • interactions across time: • animals trained on dual solution task (ambiguous) - 100 trials • early on: after first 20 trials - almost all animals used spatial strategy • using hippocampus • over time, more and more animals use response strategy • using dorsal striatum • by the end: almost all the animals used the response strategy • hippocampus used initially - good with association and explicit awareness • conscious awareness has a limited field, so needs to be passed off to striatum • signifies habit formation - procedural memory • once it becomes a motor habit, skills begin to become dependent on the striatum • habit drives most of behavior • “corticosteroids operate as a switch between memory systems” - Schwabe • hole-board task: animal placed in the center • most holes are dead ends, one hole is an escape route • in training: they get a cue AND a place (on the same hole) • see which one they use (place or stimulus-response strategy) • stressors and controls: • untreated: ALL animals use spatial strategy (using hippocampus) • vehicle injection: • corticosterone: • restraint stress: • aMR (cortisol receptor antagonist) • animals in stressed conditions: some use response strategy 3 Thursday, March 17, 2016 • findings: stress SHIFTS strategy away from hippocampus (explicit) to more procedural (unconscious) memory spatial learners took longer than the ones who shifted • • shifting to procedural strategy improves latency to escape (helps to escape faster) • under stressful conditions, don’t want to sit around thinking about what to do (evolutionarily) • cortical association areas - all 3 memory systems associated with cortical areas • olfactory prefrontal • • cingulate • parietal • temporal 4


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