9/3 Evolution by Natural Selection
9/3 Evolution by Natural Selection ANTH1001
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Date Created: 09/25/14
93 Evolution by Natural Selection Origin of Species Descent with Modification I what happened A process D how it happened Natural Selection filter with a process that leads to profound change over time Observation 1 all organisms have potential for explosive population growth Observation 2 in nature populations are relatively stable Deduction 1 not every individual will survive some kind of filter is present Observation 3 nature is full of variation Deduction 2 some variation are favored some are not not everyone has the same outcome natural selection acts on individuals on particular traits 3 Conditions 1 trait must be inherited to some degree 2 trait must vary among individuals 3 environment must put pressure on the trait differential reproductive success of individuals is based on specific heritable traits consequences some traits become more common some traits disappear if population diverges enough a new species emerges Evolution by Natural Selection evolution descent with modification in populations trait could be morphological physiological developmental or behavioral individuals are subject to selection populations evove reproductive success of offspring an organism produces individuals gt populations gt species Darwin s Evidence Biogeography species distribution Galapagos finches similar areas don t always have similar groups of animals same animals don t occupy niches in similar areas Embryology developing organisms have similar structures that disappear before birth barnacles and other crustaceans share features Paleontology study of fossils older rock layers contain related to younger organisms sequences of related organisms on top of each other in rock layers Morphology Homology superficially different and fundamentally similar Vestigial structures ex snakes have relic hind limbs Artificial Selection dog breeding selection not based on environment Key Implications revolutionary idea Darwin was reluctant to publish living world is dynamic not static rejects the things are what they are idea things change great continuity between very different organisms despite diversification over time and space location tree of life not line of life living world is a product of nonteleological not goal directed process we can understand everything evolution is not goal oriented everything is explainable Darwin didn t set out to attack religious belief religious argument we don t know and there is no way to know Darwin found this unsatisfying things that look like they were manmade were actually naturally occurring and can be scientifically explained
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