Chapter 6 Day 1
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Date Created: 09/25/14
CHM 114 Chapter 6 Waves To understand the electronic structure of atoms one must understand the nature of electromagnetic radiation The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves is the wavelength 1 The number of waves passing a given point per unit of time is frequency v All electromagnetic radiation travels at the same velocity the speed of light c or 3 00 10quot8ms Therefore c iv The Nature of Energy Max Planck explained it by assuming that energy comes in packets called quanta 0 Potential energy of person walking up steps increases in stepwise quantized manner 0 Potential energy of person walking up ramp increases in uniform continuous manner Einstein used this assumption to explain the photoelectric effect 0 He concluded that energy is proportional to frequency E hv Where h is Planck s constant 6626 10quot34 Js Therefore if one knows the wavelength of light one can calculate the energy in one photon or packet of that light 0 c iv o c K Eh Or atoms and molecules one does not observe a continuous spectrum as one gets from a white light source Only a line spectrum of discrete wavelengths is observed Niels Bohr adopted Planck s assumption and explained these phenomena in this way 0 o Electrons in an atom can only occupy certain space Electrons in permitted orbits have speci c allowed energies Not radiated from the atom Energy is only absorbed or emitted in such a way as to move an electron from one allowed energy state to another energy is defined by E hv The energy absorbed or emitted from the process of electron promotion or demotion can be calculated by the equation deltE hCRHl1 1fquot2 l1 1iquot2 0 Where RH is the Rydberg constant 1097 10quot7 mquot1 and ni and nf are the initial and final energy levels of the electron Louis de Broglie posited that if light can have material properties matter should exhibit wave properties He demonstrated that the relationship between mass and wavelength was 0 K hmv vvelocity Heisenberg showed that the more precisely the momentum of a particle is known the less precisely is kits position is known 0 deltxdeltmv is greater than or equal to h4pi O Erwin Schrodinger developed a mathematical treatment into which both the wave and particle nature of matter could be incorporated o This is known as quantum mechanics 0 The wave equation is designated with a lowercase Greek psi P o The square of the wave equation PA2 gives a probability density map of where an electron has a certain statistical likelihood of being at any given instant in time Quantum numbers Solving the wave equation gives a set of wave functions or orbitals and their corresponding energies The principal quantum number n describes the energy level on which the orbital resides o The values of n are integers greater than or equal to l Angular Momentum Quantum Number I o Defines the shape of the orbital o Allowed values of I are integers ranging from 0 to nl 0 We use letter designations to communicate the different values of I and therefore the shapes and types of orbitals I s 0 I p1 I d 2 f3 Magnetic Quantum Number m o Describes the threedimensional orientation of orbital o Allowed values 1 through 0 Therefore on any given energy level there can be up to l s orbital 3p oribitals 5d orbitals 7f orbitals Orbitals with the same value of n form a shell Different orbital types within a shell are subshells Table 62 Memorize Pictures attached OOOO
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