New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Reece Little DVM


Reece Little DVM
GPA 3.57


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in ComputerScienence

This 65 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reece Little DVM on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM S 544 at Iowa State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/214513/com-s-544-iowa-state-university in ComputerScienence at Iowa State University.

Similar to COM S 544 at ISU

Popular in ComputerScienence




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/27/15
Scanning Probe Microscopies OuTline Microscopies Length Scales Sys rem requiremen rs for scanning probe microscopies Piezo issues Image processing Near Field Scanning Op rical Microscope NSOM Scanning Tunneling Microscope STM A romic Force Microscope AFM Overview Microscopy Techniques Resolution Limits of Microscopes Characteristics of Common Microscopy Techniques 106 TEM SEM LM Light Microscope XM X Ray Microscope 104 SEM Scanning Electron Microscope quotIBM Transmission Electron Microscope Small SPM Scanning Probe Microscope 102 10 micron l30nm 1 A 1 um I I I I I I I 2 1 102 104 106 x 10 XlO 8x S l t t amP emus no not build up not have sam 16 must be variations in to light p used compatible 5 micron Basic Principles amp Hardware Principles of 5PM Means of sensing the vertical position of the tip A coarse positioning I system to 2 3 bring the tip it feedback 5 into the system to x a control the 5 1th 0f Hedi C31 the sample eff g aw i r p 4 If 1 A w A piezoelectric Karma Whit A computer system that moves the 1 1 d dnves the scanner measures 6111 Er data and converts the data the up or the into an image tip over we sample in a mate pattern r Images acquired from Park Scienti c Instruments Hardware Requiremen rs Coar39se posi rioning sys rem for39 probe approach S repper39 mo ror39 Fine posi rioning sys rem for39 sample imaging Piezo elec rr39ic cr39ys ral Pr39obe posi rion sensor Tuning for39k NSOM Laser39 AFM Tunneling cur39r39en r STMAFM Feedback con rr oller39 for39 probe posi rion PI con rr39oller39 Da ra acquisi rion sys rem and GUI Piezo I33ues Scanners C ibmdon Grid 10pm squares piezocrysfals high precision positioning nonlinear response creep hys reresis cross coupling resonances Mam mumpw sof fware hardware CalibraTion Piezo Nonlineari ries Intrinsic Nonlineality maximum dewanon Emensm urn Voitaae V Extension um Vouage V Time 5 Hysteresis 15 Hysteresis Emensmn pm Mame V Am Emensvon um m used Time m awhs Nonlinean39ty plots adaptedfmm Patk Scienti c Instrummts Calibration Piezo Nonlineari ries Cross Coupling Piezo Nonlinear Effects Combined u c 9 39 m 5 5 N gt 5PM Image ma hysteresis me and ms quzmg Vx Di extensionx Nonlineanty plots adapted from Park Scimti clnstrumems NTMDT TGXUl Calibration Glid Software Solutions Calibra rion grating for lookup Table Modeling of PZT nonlinear response Correc rions dependeni39 on speeddireci ion Error up To 10 when scan condi rions change Hardware Solutions Exfernal sensors monii or scanner39s posii ion Tofal nonlineari ry less Than 1 Image Pr39ocessmg Piezo nonlineori ries necessi ro re flo r rening Line by line fi r polynomial Fi r surface To plane Fourier methods Thresholding for39 coun ring por ricles User se r Maximum en rropy Roughness 39 Foce39r or39ien ro rion Tip r39econsTr39ucTion Polymer confour39s Near Field Scanning Op rical Microscopy NSOM NSOM ResoluTion of op rical microscope limi red To 1 2 By passing ligh r Through a hole 0x and collec ring de reC red ligh r an image is cons rr39uc red httpphysicsniigovDivisionsDiv844faoiitiesnsomnsomhtm NSOM Shear Force Mode Tuning fork oscillates probe amp amplitude reduction on approach to surface is controlled Transmission mode Light passed through sample gt transparent sample Reflection mode Light reflected off the sample gt opaque sample Luminescence mode Light passed through sample and filtered NSOM Tmnsmlssion 1458nm Flumescence Agt515nm http phy5csmigovDM5wensIONS fachesnsomngmg DNA Imaged by Shear Force NSOM 2321 42121 am am man quot391 DNA plasmid p6em7zf Promega 3000 b p linearized wiTh The SmaI endonuclease deposi red on freshly cleaved mica DNA01 Tes r sample was measured by Solver P47H using The Shear Force head Humidi ry 1 10 httpwwwntmdtcomScangalerySNOMindex html Scanning Tunneling Microscopy STM We have experienced a revoluTion in surface analysis since The advenT of The STM In 1973 a Nobel Prize in Physics was given To Esak Giaever and Josephson for Their sTudies on elecTron Tunneling in 1978 H Rohrer a sTaff researcher aT IBM Zurich 6 Binnig GraduaTe STudenT FrankfurT came To work wiTh Rohrer January 1979 Binnig did some calculaTions The Original Hypothesis The Revised Hypothesis tunneling current falls off With distance I between the surface and the tip STM CalculaTions suggesTed ThaT The Tunneling currenT would only come from a 45K area because of The exponenTial decay wiTh disTance March 18 1981 The firsT Traces recorded on an xy charT recorder Soon afTer Binnig and Rohrer noTe aTomic sized feaTures versus The 45A resoluTion They ThoughT They had ReVsedegoT1esis small proTuberances on The Tip of Their probe noT The Tip radius led To enhanced spaTial resoluTion Take noTe of The willingness To discard an unsaTisfacTory hypoThesis and To develop a new hypoThesis To explain The resulTs This quotwillingnessquot led To a Nobel Prize 1986 AppropriaTe To a Nobel Prize The cen rral concep r nuclea red a world of varian rs Scanning Tunneling Microscopy STM A romic Force Microscopy AFM FrictionLateral Force FFMLFM Elec rromagne ric modes EFMMFMECFM AC Techniques Force modula rion FMAFM Resonan r drive Tapping In rermi r ran r and Non conTacT Surface inden rers nanoli rhography Nearfield op rics NSOM Chemical sensing SFMCS Also NMR Thermal op rical spec rroscopy STM 1981 Vacuum Tunneling observed Binnig Rohr39er39 Gerber Weibel IBM Zurich 1986 Nobel prize awar39d To Binnig and Rohrer The STM can cr39ea re an image of The local elec rr39on densiTy of s ra res con rains Topographic information con rains specTr39oscopic informaTion con rains Tip shape infor39ma rion STM SchemaTic A simplificaTion QuanTum Tunneling beTween Two meTallic electrodes separaTed by a vacuum region J 0i expAkod J Tunneling currenT d disTance IS A area k0 range of wavefuncTion ouT of solid average inverse decay 90 0 e lengTh d current 99 of 39 k0 12 41 l 2 pl l 2 2 work functions of tWO metals For a general work funcTion The Tunneling currenT decreases abouT an order of magniTude for every angsTrom ofseparaTion sample Adapted from http WWW park com That are not aTomiccilly fla i x x STM Scan Modes Conslam Current Mode Constanl Height Mode Smn gt Useful for Can be used To rapid scanning Track surfaces since only The electronics must respond f The piezo based upon Hansma andTersouJAppI Phys 612A11987 Some STM Issues Density of states vs True Topography Wire Tips platinum rhodiumiridium Tungsten mechanically cut electrochemically etched ion milled tip shape is M convoluted into the image Conductive sample required in most cases can image in5ulators by working at very low tunneling currents zlpA and high bias 15 V Imaging in conductive liquids ie saline requires Tip coating with insulator Interaction force decays by a factor of 2 slower than the tunneling current Graphi39l39e Observed by STM GraphiTe is one of The easiesT maTerials To observe by STM 0 949 9 I The six carbons making up The ring are noT equivalenT 3 of The carbons have neighboring aToms immediaTely below By STM Three carbons in each ring will appear lower acTually They are noT They jusT have differenT elecTron densiTies The Tunneling currenT is proporTional To The surface elecTric charge densiTy seclt Normally The secd is where The aToms are noT noT always REMEMBER STM mea5ures elecTron densiTy noT Topography E 9 m6 c m mN 9N m o md od W A 4 ad Em uhm uu AmeIv 3339 3395 Rqu gt29 STM and Surface Science Pb on Cu100 Disordered surface alloy found aT low coverages of Pb Deposition of 38 PbCu surface a romic raTio re3uTs in a wellordered surface sTrucTure STruc rural model brighT quotwallsquot of The maze are rows of Pb a roms rows of Cu a roms beTween Them dark and unresolved in STM images Taken from hT rpwwwiap ruwienac aTwwwsurface STMGa ery PbonCuhTm lnstitut fiir llgemeine Physik Tl Illien Gold Surfaces imaged with STM 300 C 7 min sputtered annealed 677x 20 mu 1 J 677x677x 60 um Heights of features are coded in a scale from the lightest color to the darkest Slide by Thaw 301W STM Fancy Sfuff D M Exgler EK Schwexzer Fnsmnmngsmgle 344 52A526 199D Xenunnn Nmkel 11D mam MVPWw mmm mist N m quot MF Cmmme CF Lutz DM Exgler E Heller canals Surface Rewew and Lemar 2 1 1277137 1995 Imnnn Cupperuu STM Spec rroscopy Current vs Posi rion spectroscopy Iz De rer39mines Tip qualify Wor39k func rion calcula rions Currem vs Vol rage spec rr39oscopy IV High vacuum s rudy of semiconduc ror39s A romic Force Microscopy AFM Atomic Force Microscopy Split Photodiode Detector Cantilever Piezoelectric Drive Force versus Displacement Approach Retract Force 47 Position Curves A US U0 quotmm C I Cantilever approaches surface thermal noise Snap to contact tip is on surface Hamaker constant Attractive Work Constant compliance region Surface stiffne s Hysteresis viscous damping Retracting slope surface stiffness Adhesion Work energy to separate surfaces Last bonds to break single bond forces Cantilever is off surface AFM CanTi levers Small Cantilever Traditional Cantilever 950pm long 35 pm wide Image from Hansma Group UCSB Colibra rion Tip Chor39oc rer39izo rion Hue imagl g 11th 79an rquot 39I 12 n quot 39F 1th ftl 55mm lip imaging 11th pyligmal I if a PM of Sample T39 Char t 39 39t 39 NTMDT TGTOI Adapted from Park Sc1ent1 c Instruments 1p ac en Ion usmg Undefined 39l39ip shape results in Unknown degree of feoTure dila rion Lack of quon ri ro rive abili ry wi39rhou r hp radlus R Tip characteriza on solutions Tip chomc rerizer grids Blind Tip recons rr39uc rion Villor39ubia 1997 Subsfi ru39rion wi rh colloidal sphere Tip Shape Artifac rs 0 N 0 rms displacement AAZ Can rilever Calibm rion Many me rhods Thermal Noise large scale spring 12ka12kltxzgt added mass Q shif r kzkaltgtlt2gt Thermal noise k2wnfo3p3E12 04 03 A 3145 qu E R209379 5amp2 gt4 mi 0 2E13 4213 ez1a 9513 1E14 122m 14E14 FREQUENCY6 HzS Muk WKMA A an 7 1EEA 0MnA OEEIA SFll Interaction Regimes Forces Between Tip and Surface rqmlxzveforce ii lmelmllle l39 contact distance lipriorsample sepavaiion 39 onrconiad attractive force Image acquired from Park Scienqu Instruments Attractive Forces Van der Wans Electrostatic hydrogen bonding Quantum mechanical Hydrophobic Ion correlation Solvation hydration force Specific binding Repulsive Forces Quantum mechanical Corecore Van der Waals disjoining pressure Electrostatic Solvation hydration force Entropic steric forces double layer orces Dynamic Interactions Hydrodynamic forces Vicmnc fnrroc La reral Force Mode Pho rodiode de reC rion Measures Torsional deflec rions from forces parallel ro surface Fric rional con rras rs due To In rerac rion wi rh different ma rerials Change in heigh r arTifac r Trace and re rrace should be moni rored To distinguish fricTion from heigh r Seminaguaniirmmisye cmentnmd Scanning Force Micr03copy PUISed Force Mode Pulsed Force Mode Operation Simul raneous acquisition of Topography quali ra iive stiffness semiquan ri ra rive adhesion Piezo modulaTed 100 Hz 2 kHz TIME amplitude of 10 500 nm CompIeTe force distance cycle aT repeTiTion raTe Baseline Free canhlevex oscillauon FORCE SIGNAL Adhesiompeak Peak pickers and lock in amplifiers used To ex rrac i essen iial daTa resuITing in reduced daTa seT Topography Stiffness Adhesion Non des iruc rive imaging Technique used for polymers and TappingIntermittent Contact Tip quotTapsquot on sample or hammers Li r rle sample degrada rion Pene rr a res wa rer layer Fwd ayey if i Am pmude veduoed 4L Magnetic AC Mode MAC Mode OscillaTion magne rically induced 0 Frequency and amplitude confrolled Works well in fluids Lower in ler39ac lion forces Adapted from M olecularImaglng The oscilla ring magne ric field below The can i39ilever drives it directly Ln na ms DMPC liposomes in pH 70 buffer From Molecular Imaging FN on Mica 1mgml 1min in PBS Imaged in Air39 MAC mode Scan Size 2000 nm x 2000 5 39 S39Pami zbv Havim39rw mmwm siwwm Imaging in Water increasing The Q facTor Frequency spec rr39um of a ypica Imaging DNA magne rically driven can rilev er Z rane 3nm Q fac ror39 3 quot 1 7 Lyme x i MWWM inmeW Wuumk Q fac ror39 300 Images wumsy Andy Round Umvemt y of Bristol Phase Imaging 39 Wi l39h any of above modula39l39ed modes Phase lag varies in response 1390 surface mechanical properties Toor39ah 7 Phase 7 V Two Phase structure in a polymer blend Images from D Living Cell Imaging Topographic image Simultaneous PhaSe Image rn 60 degrees Images Taken with an effective quality factor of 300 Image is 32 x 32 microns Images courtesy Rachel Owen University of Bristol Masking Techniques for measuring layer Thicknesses Apply mask Apply coa ring Remove mask Masks from PDLA in ace rone or39 polys ryr39ene in Toluene PG Hartley el al 2000 Plasmas and Polymers Plasma polymer Thickness X 1000 uMdiu 2 78483 nMdiu Ihtnmt meBmy DLVO Theory and Force Curves Double Layer Repulsion Separation 11m van der Waals Attraction Solid Liquid quot39 r 39r H Distance from Surf c Stern Plane 1 K Scanning Force Microscopy DLVO Analysis of Force Curve Data Derj aguin LandauVerwayOverbeek Theory Z m aqhe AR FDLVO Z FelZ l39 deW Z 7 l39D Debye length 8680 6Z R 2 probe radius 2 probesample separation A Hamaker constant k Boltzmann constant ci component concentration T temperature qi 2 component ionic valency GS 2 surface charge density sample e 2 unit charge so permittivity of free space OP 2 surface charge density probe 35 electrolyte dielectric permittivity Theory Ion cloud accumulates at surface to shield charge gt electric double layer EDL Electric double layers overlap as surfaces approach gt EDL force Fel Van der Waals interaction provides strong attraction at small distances dew Assumptions Interaction of spherical probe with flat plane Force curve is performed under aqueous conditions Derjaguin approximation valid only if R Quantitation PoissonBoltzmann equation used to fit Felz Debye length describes thickness of EDL Analysis typically performed by external software Yields semiquantitative model of the force curve Colloid Probes SoluTions for DLVO Theory assume sphere on flaT One componem of The soluTion Derjaguin approximaTion is only valid if Rgtgtz AccV Spot Magn Del WD l l 211m 200 W 36 QOOOX SE 122 AS Silica sphere on AFM tip Courtesy of Pat Hartley CSIRO Molecular Science Australia R radius of sphere Sphere radius measured 5y Egm ad nglsr gggddw Polysaccharide GrafTing 1 AApp 2 Graft PEI Acetaldehyde Polyethyleneimine plasma polymer C C Reductive Amination SUbS Erat e Substrat Carbodiimide e COO39 coo Chemistry coo 39 EDCNHS 3 Graft CMD 39 carboxymethyl dextran Vary COO39 density Substrate FR mNm ElecTrosTaTic in remc rions Silica probe vs grafted polyethyleneimine 01 ET39 015M NaCl 0 9mm owowgomow Separation n m Scanning Force Microscopy HerTzian Analysis of Force Curves HerTzian Theory A33umes elasTic inTeracTion beTween probe and sample Assumes no adhesion in The conTacT regime Used To deTermine sample sTiffness Modeled here wiTh a rigid conical Tip oTher geomeTries may be used z ZOd d0ll 6d d0 z sample heighT 20 sample heighT aT conTacT cl canTilever deflecTion k canTilever spring consTanT K reduced elasTic modulus d0 equilibrium deflecTion aT conTacT 6 opening angle beTween Tip and surface Range of analysis Domke amp Radmacher 1998 Necessary when sofT samples are analyzed 20 GeneraTes Two equaTions for The Two unknowns K 20 Cantilever Deflection nm Indentation nm 20 Hertzian Analysis Force Distance Curves E x r f lndentatlon PPNIPA s M37 C PPNIPAM quotquotquot 25 C l l IndentationLoading Force Curves Converted from Force Distance Curves 15 10 5 0 5 Zpiezo Displacement nm 011 Loading Force nN 31 Indentation nm ob5 o3910 o3915 39 o3920 39 o3925 050 Loading Force nN Fit to Hertz Model Tip Func rionaliza rion Tip Func rionaliza rion Sfra regies Alkylsilanes Alkanefhiols RFglow discharge 1 React withX LB film deposifion ZCXXXXXXXXXXX Biomolecule physisorpfion X 7 X X X X X X X Sphere glumg X Imaging confrasfs due To X Hydrophobichydrophilic infera Tions Van der Waals forces Fric rion differences Specific recognifion evenfs PDMS Con ramina rion on AFM Tips Lo ef al 1999 attach X labeled bead Tip Func rionalizp rion Z SSIMS imaging of modified u canilevers H7 ion map 1 amu Cl lg ion map 15 amu CH4N ion map 30 amu CgHEN39 ion map 44 amu Fnrcc I nN Biosensors and DNA arrays 39AFMtip I 1 Func rionalize AFM Tip wi rh PNA PNA 4 in nllnnn nighlo A 131mi rate 2 Look of force i n rer ac rions wi rh a Alkane Thiol monolayer39 lt A I IIEI TIN mu JIM Distance 11m Rinsensnrs and DNA arrays AFM rip ff 3 Hybridize wi rh Target DNA ALI substrate quotIv b 39 4 Remeasure surface forces Distance nm39 Analysis of Pull off Forces Probability A 03 02 Ab 9 v ex 5 a fang J 2 5r 0 r 1 f 39 A 4 5 o3939g Ai 00 dquot391 quotquoth wquot 1 1 4 5 Pull fo Force1N Analyze distribution of pull off forces a PNAmodified Tip b PNADNA modified Tip c PNADNA mu ron r modified Tip Able To de rec r single base mismo rch in The onoly re DNA Lioubashevskj er al 2001 Langmuir ASAP Single Molecule Force Microscopy EffecTs of Mechanical vs Chemical STresses on proTeins Pro rein sTrucTure and unfolding TiTin module Force l l 100 150 200 Extension nm Data courtesy of Dr J Clarke S Fowler and A Slevmd of Cambridge University UK Effec rs of Mu ra rions on Protein S rabili ry V13F V1111 V1514 wt 39 1 11111111 G 7 WP U YQP Z Poin r mu ra ri ons 50m in I96 I27 module Mechanical s rabili fy cn All subs ri ru rions PM A pulling rate of 06 nms Li el al Nat StIuc Biol 2000 7 1117 pm 39p Pen Nanoli rhogmphy Image cour resy of Joseph Wei STill More MagneTic Force Microscopy MFM Magne ric forces Kelvin Probe Microscopy SKM Surface Po ren rial Elec rros ra ric force microscopy EEM S ra ric charges Scanning Capaci rance Microscopy SCM Capacimnce Scanning Acous rical Microscopy Acous rical waves Scanning Calorimetry Microscopy Thermal conduc rivi ry Site Link Lis r Advanced Surface Microscopy h39h pzIwwwaicomasm Digi ral InsTrumenTs hh pwwwdicomBibliobiobibh139m Blaine39s SPM Page h pwwwmcscomwbs rinespmspmh rm Burleigh hh pwwwbureighcom Digi139al InsTrumen139s h r rpwwwdicom J EOL h pwwwjeocom Molecular Imaging h pwwwmoeccom Nanosensors h pwwwnanosensorscom NT MDT h r rpzlwwwn rmd rcom Olympus h39H39pzlwwwolympuscojpLineUpTechnicalCan l i lever Omicron h39h pzlwwwomicron ins139rumen rscom A Prac139ical Guide To Scanning Probe Microscopy h pwww l39hermomicrocomspmguidecon l39en l39sh l39m RHK h pwwwrhk rechcommainpagesinddivh rml Scanning and Local Probe Technique Links h39r rpzwwwemblheidelbergdeal rmann ThermoMicroscopes h r rpwww 39hermomicroscopescom Wi Tec h Hpwwwwi139ecde


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.