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by: Solon Leuschke


Solon Leuschke
GPA 3.81

Steven Kawaler

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Steven Kawaler
Class Notes
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Solon Leuschke on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTRO 150 at Iowa State University taught by Steven Kawaler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/214514/astro-150-iowa-state-university in Astronomy and Astrophysics at Iowa State University.

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Date Created: 09/27/15
ome to Astro Welc 150 Stars Galaxies and Cosmology Prof Steve Kawaler and Prof Charles Kerton uo TA MrQlanWang Recltauons begln nextWednesd ay lea take a syllabus lrom the non also alallable at httpwwwpubllclastateedu Textbook required Bennettetal vars laXEsampCosNDlD y BennaumalThaCosmlcPElSDEmnE Pan 2 olne 005mm pewneewe VDFlhDse lnAsUu lZEI 550 t table 52005zs1ro150 quotThele are only two worthwhlle pnolesslons medlclne and astnonomy Medlclne because you ate sure to help someone and astnonomy because you are sune you won t hurt anyone Alaols HuxEy 0 Astronomy concerns thlngs that are 0 too large to lmaglne 0 too far to fathom 0 too old to comprehend and 0 too small to see The Universe is a BIG P ace ObJeCL 2 months as mm Nearest smrmlhe 3 quot Astronomlcal Dlstance Unlts an seen or llghl e auuuuu Kms sWDEIEImEI mm s m lux mun n ulstanee between Earth and Sun a llghtryear ulstanee llgnt travels ln 1 year semen a u l ly looooooooooooo km 10 km lettllllon km A Scale Model Solar System Dlstances w a 1 each step you take 7 10 mllllon mlles Asuuiansmmgznna Lecluvel page 5 The Rest of our Solar Syst m mm Vialquot quot 1mm amt bmwmu w m lAleklvlllv z IMil LAE l mm uu W A mm W mu l W w assmm r J S 7 iUi if L v E y mm l y i I mu min i 7 V Limes 39 i l Hm V u mel 7 l ynntlil uj u W5 The Sun is one of 100 billion stars in the Milky Way Galaxy 4 v 1oooooly gt 1oooy oNearestsimilargalaxyM31Andromeda a C0 Mostdistant galaxies known 13 billion ly away Thereareasmany galaxies in the Universe as starsin our Galaxy Awmansmmgznna Lecluvel page a The Universe is now expanding following a Big Bang 0 Age of the Sun 45 billion years 0 Age of the Universe 136 billion years Moanm unlvprsa U 7 quotmummyquot w F In l 0 07 04 Age of mo WW blHalls of years mm mump mm m m The Universe 5 almost empt Denslty of water 1 gramcc Denslty of Earth 5 gramscc Denslty of the Unlverse Chemlcal composltlor awn Hydrogen 20 Hellum lt m everythan else All Earthly matter heavler than hellum carh 1 xygen g l was tran rmed In the centers of long eat tars hlllmm of years ago m StarEl n Clouds M16 HST WFPCE 5413 SI su one v Newman 2 Ins mp ScmMAl 5nnunwLM sA Some Other Solar Systems over 100 known A scale MOdel OfTime mm mm mm 9 mg by rm H mm mmm mmm mus owes D m Ngamgrma cm mam Pyramms usA Reamng Chapter 17 17 1717 A quot Reading Chapter 17 17 1717 4 Exam 2 Thursday March 24 Exam 2 Thursday March 24m Review of last time Stellar Evolution amp Star Clusters Review of last time Stellar Evolution amp Star Clusters The Mass Luminosity Relation Key Ob39ects Star Clusters the VogtRussell Theorem compact grouping of stars formed at the same time types of clusters Main Seguence Lifetimes associations all main sequence including OB lifetime shorter for massive stars t 1lM3 open clusters no OB and some red g39 ts massive stars burn out faster globular clusters low mass MS stars lots of giants stars evolve slowly age of cluster given by most massive MS star remaining oldest clusters 13 billion years old Formation of Stars Evidence from the Stars Evidence from the Stars see massive stars that must have formed recently s e massive stars that must have formed recently see available raw material dust and gas Formation of Stars vav of Stars vaw of Stars Evidence from the Stars assive stars that must have formed recently Evidence from the Stars assive stars that must have formed recently see available raw material dust an a see stars that are embedded in dust and gas see disks jets associated with these stars see available raw material dust a see stars that are embedded in dust and gas a Optical e lSU Pick Observatory lR e Spitzer Space Telescope often associated with young star cluster 12llar Writs Stars form in cold dense regionsquot called molecular clouds Average Interstellar medium ISM conditions density a few atoms cc air 1018 atomscc temperature 10 composition 75 hydrogen Molecular Clouds clumps of interstellar medium ISM nsity up to1 mass up to 106 Msun radius 10 30 pc CO emission mm waves Optical Ho 32 emission ows us H2 location temperature 10K composition d t HS g i facids This region is about 80 pc long with cz so iemano 100 000 solar masses of material First phase from cloud to protostar quot To make stars a cloud must undergo Gravitational Collapse How do you initiate the collapse Increase density kick the cloud cloud collisions stellar winds supernovae As the nonuniform cloud collapses it also fragments ensesl compact regions cloud cores cores collapse to form one or more stars Q Gy h First phase from cloud to protostar The Protostar Phase Protostars are ally seen in IR loads ofdust In surrounding clouds dust opaque to optical wavelengths dust heated to 1000K thermal IR initial collapse is fastlt105 yr then as density core heats up a pressure again balances gravity slow contraction 4 gravitational energy 106 yr in optical dark knots against bright background slum Spam wasam m Eagle Nebula 7000 ly away Colder dust and gas Note Young star cluster with massive stars First phase from cloud to protostar lnfallin material around rotostars forms a d39 Why conservation of angular momentum Second phase evolution to the main sequence Eventually most ofthe infalling material is assembled into a compact dense region main sequence stars hotter more luminous but no fusion reactions in core Pro Second phase evolution to the main sequence Stellar nds and 39ets clear rem Premain sequence star eventually n mater becomes visible TTauri Stars coo stars with irregular brightness blowing away surrounding dust the main sequence Second phase evolution to the main sequence Second phase evolution to the main sequence Star disperses any Star continues to contract remaining material until core temperature is hot enough to allow fusion ne way a star can do this HYdI39DStath equllbrlum is is through the formation of established amp fusion rate 5 balances energy loss rate We have detected planets around other nearby solar type stars 51 0 rate mum Andromeda Star becomes a hydrogen 1 buming main sequence star About 130 planets in total z u u 1 2 xuu The timing The timing Evolution to MS depends on mass For all stars this is a VERY SHORT time eg Sun lt 100 million years afteri tial collapse Very Fast 105 years Arm snSvHgmns 1mm KW 21 Mass Msun tMS 106 years tFreMS 106 years 15 3 006 2 9 137 0150 11 3 370 3 08 1 10000 50 05 05 80000 150 019 A ismmm uquot ism i Reading Chapter 19 ExamZ grades posted ProJects approval prlor to Aprll 7 due on last day oi course Brief review of last time the ISM and our Galaxv the Milkv Wav I InterstellarAbsorption lines I InterstellarAtomicAbsorption Line Clouds o H Regions planetary nebulae and H1 21 cm I Molecules and ust I IRRadio 0 scattering absorption blue light re ected redder light transmitted I Interstellar Reddening I The Star Gas Star cycle We39ve now studied Mimims M We 2 I stars I star clusters I molecular clouds stellar nurseries I stellar corpses White dwarfs neutron stars I Interstellar gas HI HII and dust All are components of our GALAXY the Milky Way nucieus hulue 3 500 pc snirziaim Disk Halo 30 000 30000 parsecs parsecs Views of Siral GalaXIes Vews of our M kWa Infrared COBE Stellar Populations in the Milky WSym Wm 0 Population Stars in the Disk E f 0 massive stars open clusters 39 0 orbit Within disk of galaxy 0 quotmetalquot abundance same as Sun or more i 0 Population II Stars in the Halo m J 0 very low metal abundances 0 orbits way out of galactic plane 0 low mass stars globular cluster 7 V 0 Populations as clues to the formation of the Milky Way 0 P09 stars relics ofearliest starformation in the MW DTIDN initial collapse of the Galaxy LDWMETALS primordial uncooked material 0 P09 Stars more recently formed HIGH METALS stars formed from debris of olderstars my lm swam immivpm a Probing the structure of the Galaxy Galactic Rotation 0 differential rotation inner parts rotate faster than outer parts 0 orbital period of Sun 230000000 years I the Sun is 20 galactic years old 0 distance to MW center 8500 pc 0 Mass of Milky Way via Kepler39s Laws 1011 MSLIn ifmassfoows light BUT What we see distance distance 0 DARK MATTER 90 of galaxy mass my lm swam immivpaim 7 Tracinq the structure of the Milkv Wav 0 Globular clusters spherical halo of old stars Mam om w a mu M n w my lm swam immivpaim x Tracinq the structure of the Milkv Wav 0 Young OB Stars delineate spiral arms 0 most luminous stars around 0 dust blocks more distant ones 0 we live in the quotOrion Arm Permianquot 39 240 OrluirCygriuxorm o x 39 msmmm mam lava m Tracin the structure of the Milk Wa 0 HI 21 cm and Molecular Cloud maps 0 Each lineofsight has many clouds at different distances 0 Use differential rotation of galaxy to estimate 0 cloud dista nlclenusmu cloud radial veIOCIty rukiuun 7quot Tracing the structure of the Milky Way 0 HI 21cm and Molecular Cloud maps 0 IR Radio mapping 0 differential rotation to get distances Am imsvmgmns m ism u Puelseus arm Orlon local arm 39 n 39 5 W kpc mmsmmm mam lava a What keeps spiral galaxies spiral 0 Age of Galaxy 0 12 billion years 0 50 galaxy rotations 0 differential rotation arms would have wound up long ago 0 youngest stars found In arms 0 Arms must be fixedgatterns through which stars move 0 Spiral Density Wave Theory n on u Tg T i ii a a can 1 mm Spiral Density Waves 0 Arms must be xed patterns through Whlch slars and gas move 0 LOCaIIZed density Increase 7gt enhanced star formation 3 mm mmmm on 39 mmme Mam nu ma ma Wm Back to the dark matter39 issue 0 Mass of Milky Way via Kepler39s Laws 10 MWquot 7 whzlwesee swgmua L w leQ l Reading Chapter I7 Sect 74 Chapter I8 Sect 883 Exam 2 Thursday March 24 Hans Bethe I906 2005 Brief review of last time Stellar Evolution I 0 Main Sequence 0 high vs low mass Betha I937 Nobel Prize I967 0 Core hydrogen exhaustion 0 to the Red Giants 0 Core helium ignition 0 high vs low mass the Helium Flash 0 triplealpha burning He gt C O Bethe and Salpeter 0 Helium exhaustion 0 return to the giants the AGE 0 shell burning sources M lt 8 Msun 0 planetary nebula ejection 0 white dwarf formation m lSDSVVaQDD L w WW 2 Discovery of white dwarfs 950 0 I844 Bessel 1970 discovers a tiny wobble in the proper 1990 motion of Sirius caused by a mysteriously invisible I Msun star in orbit around it 9 0 I8622Alvan Clark SIRIUS B nally discovered the companion using his new I8 refractor It was the faintest and tiniest star ever seen m lSDSVVaQDD L w WW 3 Sirius B 0 Mass 0 Msu n Luminosity 0002 Lsu n 0 Temperature 9000 K L iR 2 T 4 Lsun RSUH Tsun so RRsun 00I8 R Earth Sirius B A star with the mass of the Sun but collapsed to the size of Earth avg density 200000 gcc I teaspoon Shaq lSDSVVaQDD L w leQ o Gravity at surface 00000 X Earth 0 I920z Eddington lagainl 0 normal gas pressure can never balance gravity at such high pressures 0 electrons would be forced INTO nuclei quotamp 0 I93OS Chandrasekhar 0 a quantum mechanics effect electron degeneracy supports WDs 0 but only if M lt 4 Msun relativity 0 I983 Nobel Prize in Physics An WWIan i innv a Ultimate late of White Dwarfs 0 fade and cool as residual heat is lost 0 into the stellar graveyard 0 time to cool to 5000K is over l0 billion years 0 as it coolsthe CO core CRYSTALLIZES Wrinkle Winkle iinlesiar How I wonder what you are Upahove iheworldm high Likes dmmandin lhesky 1m Tlljhlrl7dldld 0 crystalline carbon is DIAMOND a imiulnml i ima Astronomers hd a ii MEWS mm i um i M gt 8 Msun outwith a BAth 0 can reach higher core temperatures 0 CO fusion for support all the way to IRON 0 Onion Skin Structure mum ll Jl vl in mm lib hi i inliilm im mm US u39i mm mm 1mm x an mummy s mimuvr man or mu a imiulnml i rim Advanced Burning Stages Each successive stage is lessef cient 9 33 3 9 So each stage takes a shorter time to complete minimum m i usmn uua L w WW 9 The Iron Catastroohe s M71 SN I987A in the Large upemova m 0 heavier elements gt less energy per reaction Magenanic Coud 0 Iron and beyondzfusion consumes energy 0 burning iron accelerates collapse 0 iron core undergoes runaway gravitational collapse 0 reaches high density and temperature 0 synthesis of elements heavier than Iron 0 neutron degeneracy sets in 0 core stiffens and bounces 0 shoves envelope away from star with a burst of energy all in a few SECONDS a SUPERNQVA computer model of the rst few we a SMQQF WQVQ a star blown we Of a su ernova l e Bethe at al I990 0 can outshine an entire Galaxy for weeks 0 produce heavy elements and neutrinos 0 in the supernova core 0 high temperature and density 0 nucleosynthesis of heavy elements Bethe etal I980s iron core rebound 0 The only place in the Universe where elements heavier than IRON are made expanding shock wave e 0 Supernova Remnants 0 clouds of material ejected by SN 0 distribution of heavy elements into space 0 trigger for later star formation Tlie39 Crab Nebula 39 optical Fick Cassiopeia A optical The Veil f 39licl lt All matter heavier than carbon was once in the core of a star that exploded as a supernova 0 including calcium in our teethgold in our jewelry iron in our blood copper in our coins We are star dust We are golden And we ve got to get ourselves Back to the garden Joni Mitchell Woodstock 1969 6 Recent supernovae I987 Large Magellanic Cloud 604 Kepler s SN 5722Tycho s SN 8852Andromeda m SDSVVEQDDE L w WW 5 What s Left a Neutron Star endpoint of stellar evolution for between 8 and 25 Msun stars m SDSVVEQDDE L w WW 5 Neutron Stars 0M core 0 nuclei packed tightly together 0 protons absorb electrons only neutrons left 0 collapse halted by neutron degeneracy pressure gt 4 Msun collapse pastWD M 1 4 315quotquot R 1021 km lensil lllHErnmsL39i39 1 teaspoon of neutron star all the people in China 0 How do you find something so small m muswgma L w Mag 0 Neutron Stars Mass 20 Msun Radius 000002 Rsu I39l Temperature 5X05 K i 2 T 4 Lsun Rsun TSUI I so LLsun 000I nearly all in Xray rarity of neutron stars end product of O B star evolution means closest is still pretty far away very unlikely to see in optical or even Xray Isolated Neutron S r RX 85835 1 Neutron Star RX l M ASA a wmulsuu 0mm 25 may you 0 5mm am an NASA 1356 I 353754 HST mm mm 5mm EmailsVsechalus ease lake a syllabu also available at httpwwwpu x N m mnt mble bliiastzte edul1004astm 50 Textbook required Benneuui Slay camesscosnougy Bennenuzl m cosnlepwpeeov lmaom com Perspuuve nounsemm lzuaso Moos Holey 0 Astronomy concerns things that are 0 too large to imagine 0 too far to fathom o too old to comprehend and o too small to see WeldQO AM 3950 mm Stars Galaxles and Cosmology n There are 0 two worthwhlle pmfexxlonx medlane Pm Steve szzler and astronomy Medicine bet e you re sureto help someone and astronomy beuuxe you are sure you TA MyKlnAMeson won39thu onequot MvAslevan M QlanWang n gt Recitations begin his Wedne The Universe is a BIG PISSquot tummy 3mmu one a musle Astronomical Distance Units m u 39 n au n dlsunce between Ea n and Sun allgnsyeay dlsmnte llyltnaels m l year o7 ooo au l ly lolooolowlooolooo km lo 3 m l0 rllllurl km A Scale Model Solar System Distances The Rest of our Solar System wquot my 1 quotr m2 Elm s une smut uHmn stays m m Milky Way calm a W9 gzlms knuwl 13 human lyzway n Musmsm nale 22 as many gzlms n ma Llllvuse zs slzsm ml 13am The Universe is now expanding following a Big Bang As alum Sum 15 bllllnn yuan Ag alum Unlvanal ua nun yum 1 7 v39 Agezr39th g 71 mm mu DamM awmastquot em gi nslty of water I gramc Denqu of Earth 5 gramsu Denqu of the ooooooooooooooooooooool g Io39quot gcx Ulemlml composltlon Hydrogen Hellnm lt m verylhlng all mm 20 min oxyge 150quot My suaramh Clouds M16 WM an WWWquot mmquot mm unumn Some OtherSolzr Systems over IOO known itquot A Scale Model ofTime mm m mm me w m N m Reading Chapter 19 Exam 2 Thursday March 24 h Lectures 10 17 Am ts svnnvz s ummixvive t Scale 101 0 light years Review of last time Bizarre Outcomes of Stellar Evolution Pulsars 39rapidly rotating neutron stars the lighthouse metaphor 39uses of pulsars in astronomy and physics Final evolution M gt 25Msun 39supernova leaves behind remnant gt 5 Msun 39ultimate complete gravitational collapse Black Holes 39Schwarzschild radius R 3km x MMsun 39enormous tidal forces nearby 39distortions of space and time near event horizon Detecting black holes 39massive unseen companion to a star 39X ray emission from accreting material 100 billion stars the Interstellar Medium the View from InSIde the Milky Way Galaxy gas and dust between the stars 1 Interstellar Absorption Lines Cunnnueus Spectrum Absorpllon Line Spectrum navelengm wavelenuln 39i prism Ilun cloud ml lrgm source ol gas the Interstellar Medium gas and dust between the stars 2 Interstellar Absorption amp Reddening Interstellar Absor tion amp Reddenin dust can absorb visual light heavily up to 99999999 20 magnitudes or more Extinction decreases with increasing wavelength IR radio observations see through dust nterstellar Absorgtion amp Reddening dust can absorb visual light heavily up to 99999999 20 magnitudes or more 50 IDDCLII LOOKING THROUGH A DARK CLOUD IUD 1mm Extinction decreases with increasing wavelength IR radio observations see through dust Interstellar Reddening 39dust removes blue light stars viewed through dust look redder Tells us something about the average size of dust in the ISM the Interstellar Medium Clas and dust between the stars 3 Nebulae Emission amp Reflection Asmisnrauznn ummlxpave v Asmlauralzm Ledmel vavem Emission Nebulae Hl H two Regions 39bubbles of ionized gas around hot stars 390 stars a big Hll regions 250 pc 398 stars a smaller Hll regions 10 pc a Brightness 1Which are hotter O or B stars 2 Which spectmm shovm here is 39om a hotter star A or B How do you know7 3 Which spectmm produces the most photons in he ultraviolet lt 400 nm 4 Given that you need photons with wavelengths lt 91 2 nm to ionize H why do you think 0 star Hll regions are larger than B star Hll regions mammal uaumSvive n An emission line nebula the Cygnus Loop 39 Wig vi p m RedHydrogen Emaoxygen quot Green moxygen Ill Asmmmmu udmel vive Ammmzm umml pavu Other ways to view the ISM Dust Emission in the far infrared 60 100 pm dust grains absorb starlight and heat up Asmmmmu umvel pavu Neutral Hydrogen H1 or 21 cm Clouds 39spinflip of e39 in Hl involves lowE photon 3g 39wavelength of 21 cm a 39rare event but strong signal LOTS of hydrogen 39important probe of gas in galaxies warm diffuse gas Interstellar Molecules 39Absorbemit over broad bands in wavelength 39Infrared and Radio wavelengths 39molecules present where ISM is cold 39associated with star formation complexes H2 OH H20 CO CN CH4 COZ CZHSOH CH3NH CO emission mm waves shows us H2 location The StarGas Star cle LIFE I39LANIZ I AR P The isM is the material from which stars form 1 Stars in uence the structure and the composition ofthe ISM White Dwarfs N eutmh Stars iack H Dies A pain it obscures our view at optical wavelengths Two ways of looking at the ISM Interesting It s ows us how galaxies evolve and is associated with star formation Asliu 15 Fail 2mm Lecluie M page 1 Reading Chapter 17Sect 1717114 Exam 2 Thursday October 28 Brief review of last time Stellar Evolution and Star Clusters I The Mass Luminosit Relation I the VogtRussell Theorem I Main Sequence Lifetimes I lifetime shorter for massive stars t 1M3 I massive stars burn out faster I stars evolve slowly I Key Obiects Star clusters I compact grouping of stars formed at the same time I types of clusters associations 7 all main sequence including QB I open clusters 7 no QB r and some red giants globular clusters 7 low mass MS stars lots of giants I age of cluster given by most massive MS star remaining I Clusters as key objects for stellar evolution I oldest clusters 13 billion years old Formation of Stars Asliu 15 Fail 2mm Lecluie M page 2 I Where to begin I Evidence from our current Solar System I Evidence from the Stars I First phases collapse to star plus disk I interstellar cloud gravity takes over I angular momentum disk formation I The Solar Nebula I mass and composition I temperature distribution I Planet formation I condensation I accretion into planetessimals I accretion into planets and satellites Asliu 15 Fail 2mm Lecluie M page 3 Where to begm I Evidence from our current Solar System I all planetary orbits are I counterclockWIse ane S I nearly circular formed ut I in the same plane ofadisk I inner planets are rocky I outer planets are gas balls I Evidence from the Stars I there are many other solar systems I there are many multiple star systems I youngest stars are embedded in dust and gas Asliu 15 Fail 2mm Lecluie 1o page e Stars from by collapse of interstellar gas and dust I Average Interstellar medium ISM conditions density a few atoms cc air 1018 atomscc I temperature 100K I composition 75 hydrogen I Molecular Clouds clumps of interstellar medium ISM density up to 104 cc mass up to 10 Msun often associated with young radlus 10 30 pc star clusters I temperature 10K I composition I dust molecules H2 H20 CO NHZCHZCOOH amino acids C2H50H ethanol stellar nurseries F st phase collapse of interstell Fgloua e 0 To make stars a cloud must und rgo Gravitational Collapse 0 How do you Inmate the collapse 0 Increase denslty klck the cloud area call quotearn 0 fragmentation mlual WIIHDSE at large dam 1Mgt300 thl away names smallertragmms ham mar owmuaaee a surclusnan 39 NGE 35m Memo srsa ommnel umamaalrumn an 39a a a a acmlum nm mastmagnum t From Cloud to Star meo quotquotquot swarm Cloud Core EWW o Dense knoB wnlnn lragmems seed at rotostars 0 The Protostar Phase o Inlllzl collapse IS last lt 105 yr ore he up a pressure agaln balances granty 0 w c mctlon a gravnauonal energy 10 yr re aln s quence P ase larger stlll than Mslars us n M3 stars M ccaler than stars stlll too cool lor nuclear bumlng 107 years 7 core holenough or H lgnlllon n pilesSun 0 3x107 years 7 1 M m star settles onm Mam Sequence 0 more masslve stars reach MS raster From Cloud to Star observafToH quot I Mostl seen n IR Isfummn m r wm I loads of dust In surrounding clouds quot quot quotquot W39quot quotW I dust opaque to optical wavelengths I dust heated to 1000K thermalquot IR igm m wmm I In optica dark knots against bright background 39 39a I cool stars With irregular brightness I bIoWIng away surrounding dust I ewdence of surrounding dis 0 Collapse gt Spinu gt formation of Bi I consequence of angular momentum conservation I bipolar ows of gas o rvations of Orion disks Eggs in M16 I B Pictoris minim M was he ower of IR to see into clouds 440 rim 900 nm 39 5quot mm WM we 12501 smr Formation in Hurdle ans Spium 511mm TLllmcop IRAC MiPS l 1 H m no Mummy m Jim vua iivsi mm Jo a quoti EI E D Prolap nnemry Disk 7 7 L asquot Gaseous Pillars M16 HST WFPCZ A v u n Wain Mu 3 1 Orion Nebula Mosaic MST WFPCZ I NEIhis sl kl 0M1 tzunhem VI c a DDII va u w gunman Mu 5d up but 2 l995 J Mule and P Seaman AZ Sm Hamil MESA Final Formation Stagg 39 quotJ 0 Sun Turns Onquot 0 solar wind blows remaining gas away 0 planet growth in protoplanetary disk largely ceases d of Planetar Formation Phase 0 final large scale collisions I EarthrMoon system METCUTY COTE formation 0 internal meltingdifferentiation 0 satellite formationcapture 0 large scale sweepingbombardment All this took a VERY SHORT time WT less than 100 million years after initial collapse Diamemr m Neptune s 0va


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