Animal Health and Behavior
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Date Created: 09/25/14
Animals in captivity depend on humans for EVERYTHING 0 Animal dependence on humans is a massive responsibility In 1965 the British govemment commissioned an investigation into the welfare of intensively farmed animals 0 Brambell s 5 Freedom I To stand up lie down tum around groom themselves and stretch their limbs 0 Five Freedoms for Farm Animals I Freedom from Hunger and Thirst Freedom from Discomfort Freedom from Pain Injury or Disease Freedom from Express Normal Behavior Freedom from Fear and Distress Health vs Disease 0 O 0 Health state of complete physical mental and social well being Disease any state other than a state of complete health I Normal structure and or function of the body or some parts is altered or disturbed Health Management Goal PREVENT disease Disease Prevention 0 OOOOOOOO Provide enough water and nutrition Provide an appropriate environment Allow expression of normal behavior Minimize stress and mental suffering Vaccinate Deworm Observe frequently Maintain records Small investments in time and money toward disease presentation can yield huge rewards in reduction of suffering to animals and cost of treatment Strategic preventive measures are those planned well in advance of disease and are based on a variety of factors such as seasonal changes in weather parasite life cycles Case Disease WorkUp 0 History I Signalment Species age sex breed stage of productionreproduction I Clinical signs Symptoms behaviors or physical characteristics that are different from normal 0 Ex fever lethargy depression weight loss I Subclinical asymptomatic they have it not showing signs yet I Onset on Clinical Signs Timing Acute sudden onset Chronic slow or over time Subacute less marked in severity or duration I Medical history 0 Observation HousingEnvironment DietNutrition VaccinationDeworrning Prior IllnessesAllergies ampor Treatments Family ampor Group History I Wait and watch the animal 0 Physical examination I Systematic evaluation I Vital signs I Lesion abnormality in an organ or body part size color shape structure or function 0 Differential diagnoses I Etiologycause of disease I Vascular I Infectious In ammatory I Trauma Toxin I Allergic Autoimmune I Metabolic I Iatrogenic we may have caused it Idiopathic can t figure it out I Neoplasia I Developmental Degenerative Dietary Drug Induced I Contagious or Infectious Disease capable of being transmitted from animal to animal Vector an organism that tram its a disease or parasite from one animal to another Fomite any inanimate object that can transmit infectious agents from one animal to another 0 Ex water buckets boots Zoonotic Diseases transmitted between animals and humans 0 Direct exposure to infected animals their tissued manure body uids Pathogen any living diseaseproducing agent Pathogenicity or Virulence the ability of an organism to produce disease Resistance the natural ability to defend against pathogens 0 Diagnostic testing 0 Diagnosis 0 Plan treatment and control Body s Defense Against Disease 0 Non Specific Immunity I Anatomic barriers Skincell layers mechanical barrier limits entry of pathogens Mucous membranes mechanical barrier traps microbes cilia propel microbes out of body Physiologic barriers pH acidic pH in the stomach kills many digested microorganisms Temp normal body temp and fever mil it growth of some microorganisms Soluble factors In ammatory barriers Tissue damage induces vasodilation leakage of uid from capillaries entry of antibacterial protein and white blood cells Phagocytic Barriers Specialized cells neutrophils monocytes and macrophages phagocytize kill and digest whole microorganisms 0 Specific Immunity Humoral immunity Cell mediated immunity Acquired immunity provides specific and longterm defense against previously encountered pathogens These immune responses are mediated by white blood cells B and T lymphocytes Acquired immune responses are induced after exposure to an antigen Hallmarks of AcquiredAdaptive Immunity 0 Specific o Adaptable and Diverse o Able to recognize self nonself and altered self 0 Has memory Lymphocytes B cells Made and acquire specificity in the bone marrow B cells leave the bone marrow and enter the bloodstream expressing unique antigenbinding receptors antibodies on their cell membranes When an unprimed B cell encounters its specific antigen for the first time it becomes activated The B cell proliferates multiples and differentiates to form effector plasma cells and memory B cells Plasma cells short lifespanzsecrete antibodies antibodies bind to antigens for elimination Memory B cells long lifespans continue to express membraneboud antibodies with the same specificity Humoral Immunity 0 Humor body uids I T Cells 0 Describes protection provided by circulating antibodies or immunoglobulins to bind antigens and target them for destruction 0 Diagnostic test antibody titer measures the level of antibodies in a blood sample 0 Antibody Titer I A measurement of how many antibodies to a certain antigen are circulating in the blood at that moment I Titers are usually expressed as a ratio which is how many times the sample could be diluted before antibodies are no longer detected I Ex If a sample was diluted twice before antibodies could not be detected then the result would be reported as a titer of 12 If it took 1000 times the titer would be ll000 Lymphocytes made in the bone marrow mature are made in the thymus Mature cells leave the thymus pass through the bloodstream and find homes in the spleen lymph nodes Can only recognize antigens that are being presented by other cells this is called CellMediated Immunity CMI the antigens have to be handed to them to be set off Antigen presenting cell present antigen to T cell When a mature T cell encounters its speci c antigen presented by an antigen presenting cell it becomes activated T cell proliferates and differentiates to form memory T cells and produce cytokines Memory T cells long lifespan Cytokines proteins that signal other immune cells to act or directly cause cell death Case Feb 19 2001 England Location Meat Abattoir slaughterhouse in Essex County Routine inspection at the Meat Abattoir reveals animals with signs of O O illness Signalment I Species 27 pigs I Age greater than 6 yrs Vet Observation and Physical Exam I Fever I Lame I When made to move squeal loudly and walk painfully I Blisters on upper edges of hooves heels and in the cleft 0 Differential Diagnoses and Testing I Submit vesicular uid vesicular tissue and whole pigs for necropsies to the Diagnostic Lab I Ddx for acute lameness and vesicles in a group of pigs Trauma Selenium intoxication Bacterial infection Viral infection I Dx Foot and Mouth Diseases 0 Treatment Highly contagious virus that infects clovenhoof animals like cattle sheep and pigs Transmitted by direct contact with infected animals salvia urine bedding inanimate objects or by inhalation or viral particles Incubation period the time from infection to appearance of clinical signs 214 days Cattle display oral blisters while swine have severe foot lesions Sheep often have mild if any clinical signs of FMD Other clinical signs include fever unwillingness to eat and move drooling abortion and death of young animals Most infected animals don t die of the disease but they aren t as healthy as they were infection I No direct treatment only supportive care I Vaccines are available but they must be matched to the specific types and subtype of virus causing the outbreak so the virus usually spreads before a vaccine is made 0 Preliminary Plan I Isolate the slaughterhouse and the two farms that supplied the pigs within 5mil animal exclusion zones I Test animals at the farm and slaughterhouse I Find more animals with FMD I Ban exportation of live animals meat and dairy products from the UK I Response from the US Secretary of Agriculture Consult another agency Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service APHIS 0 Mission I Protect US agr resources from pests and diseases I Ensure the marketability of US agr products O by integrating plant and animal disease surveillance epidemiology emergency response and info delivery I Manage trade issues related to animal or plant health Update I A cattle farm in Essex is diagnosed with FMD I People are urged to avoid farmland to prevent further spreadshut down tourism Investigation into Pigs History I Pigs originated from Bumside Farm un northem England I Earlier in Feb a neighboring farm sent 40 sheep to Hexham Market and then to Carlisle market History I 348 sheep from the area were exported to Germany Plan I First mass slaughter 5 days after outbreak I Outbreak in northem Ireland and Scotland up to 40 farms I The army called in to help Outbreak Outcome I Duration 8 months I Animal slaughtered 6 million I Cost 69 billion I Farms populated 120000 I Time after normalization of trade after FMD clearance 18 months I The monetary cost of this outbreak was second only to WWII in the history of the UK Lessons I Vaccinate quickly don t wait Food Safety and Inspection Service FSIS agency within the USDA O O USDA FSIS is responsible for ensuring that our food supply is safe to eat I Inspect animals slaughterhouses and processing facilities I Inspects liquid frozen and dried egg products I Enforces correct labeling and packing Animal Disease and National Economies 0 Animal diseases can have profound impact on economies nations and people Trade and animals suffer Livestock diseases cost ranchers farmers and consumers approximately billions of dollars yearly Eradicate elected animal diseases from the US Assist in the protection of the welfare of particular groups of animals