U S FOREIGN POLICY
U S FOREIGN POLICY POL S 358
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haylee O'Hara on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL S 358 at Iowa State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/214557/pol-s-358-iowa-state-university in Political Science at Iowa State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Expansionism McDougall Facts on the ground create expansion expansion is a civilian driven event in violent forms civil society militarism Michael Mann government direction is minimal Expansionism is not a foreign policy in normal sense Northwest Ordinance of Congress of the Confederation 1787 reaffirmed by 1st Congress of the United States in 1789 Homestead Act not passed until 1862 a filing fee entitled applicant to 160 acre parcel Little international role in expansion from 18201840 Idea that US will expand westward is longstanding Revolutions in Latin America lead to Mexican independence Slavery question drives US expansion politics McDougall Racism does not cause expansion Straw Man Argument racism is the primary causes of expansion or without racist ideologies there would have been no expansion Raceinformed history of expansion racial beliefs shape the modes and paths of expansion 0 US excludes nonwhites from immigration to US since 1790 only free white persons may be naturalized o Racists beliefs are pervasive and held strongly in the North as well as the South 0 Expansion to majority nonwhite areas avoided Racism and Liberty 0 O O 00 American form of liberty is premised on self government liberty cannot survive with servile population in the majority to maintain order oppressive state institutions will develop limit expansion in nonwhite majority areas refusal to accept nonwhites as citizens at a federal level before Civil War Texas Annexation and War with Mexico Background 1821 independent Mexico invited US citizens to settle in Mexico 1830 30000 AngloMexican residents outnumber Tejanos 0 Mexico bans further immigration and increases taxes and gov presence 1835 Santa Anna s coup fails to improve their plight March 1836 Anglo Texans defeat Mexican army capture Santa Anna and gain independence via a secret treaty in April New Republic of Texas reintroduces slavery Annexation as a Cause of War Mexico opposes Texan independence legal grounds are murky Santa Anna was coerced into signing treaty Congress is divided over annexing Texas when Mexico still claims it Senate rejects Treaty of Annexation with Texas in June 1844 1635 0 Congress approves joint resolution to offer annexation to Texas in March 1845 0 James K Polk becomes president intent on securing Texas and lands out to California 0 Texans accept annexation War with Mexico Mexico and US to enter talks over borders of Texas but dispute US minister s status formal v informal April 1846 Gen Z Taylor places troops on Rio Grande River border and a Mexican incursion leads to skirmish May 1846 Polk was going to ask for declaration of war with news of Rio Grande skirmish argues that state of war exists Congress approves military appropriations bill declaring that a state of war exits 0 US residents in California revolt and get backing from US military 0 US wins military victories but Mexican government in turmoil 13000 deaths mostly from disease 0 Treaty not reached until Feb 1848 US gets roughly a third of Mexico including California and pays Mexico 15 million Oregon Territory US wants border further north Britain oppose this Polk delivers aggressive addresses House foreign relations chair calls for 54 40 or fight and calls for the US to establish de facto control in the region but minimal military preparations are made War averted with Great Britain in 1846 by settling for 49th parallel borders Intelligence intelligence as information right or wrong Intelligence is the process by which specific types of information important to national security are requested collected analyzed and provided to policymakers Lowenthal 2002 What to Target after Cold War no clear enemy with Soviet decline what should IC do Traditional Focus foreign policy aims defense policies military capabilities others intelligence efforts Transnational organized crime drug trafficking financial crimes Economic and commercial espionage espionage against foreign firms negotiation positions of governments 0 France expels US diplomats in Feb 1995 Terrorism writ large and against US Competing Demands support US military operations aid US business fight crime terror as transnational crime should IC be reorganized Rise of Congressional Oversight limited role priorto late 19705 0 limited access to intelligence products 0 deferential to CIA and IC Church Senate and Pike House Committees in 1975 o Rockefeller Commission Ford admin 0 Disclose abuses of wiretaps surveillance and disruption by FBI CIA and Army intelligence 0 Senate and House intelligence committees created 19761977 SSCI and HPSCI Oversight 0 Limited access to NIEs and no raw intelligence initially 0 19805 get copies of NIEs and access to raw intel PostCold War 0 Review of CW record 0 Reform proposals in 1996 by Brown commission and House IC21 study National Intelligence Estimates Estimate as intellectual structure Sherman Kent a base of more or less solid factual evidence a top of highly reasoned conjecture NlEs as product of interIC process headed by a NIO but can be drafted by others input from all IC agencies reviewed by top IC officials risk of lowest common denominator consensus UnderEstimating v OverEstimating underestimation as a failure is overestimation a failure overreaction by US affects others conduct Politicization of Intelligence analysis differs from policymakers presumptions pressure to change analysis Problems with Soviet Estimates Why was Soviet decline not predicted by CIA 0 CIA dissents on 1986 estimate of increases in Soviet programs 0 SchultzGorbachev conversations not reported to CIA analysts 1989 CIA review found that every major intelligence assessment from 19741986 overestimated Soviet nuclear weapons plans DIA v CIA fight Overestimate supports Ballistic Missile Estimate 1995 NIE concluded quotno country otherthan the major declared nuclear powers will develop or otherwise acquire a ballistic missile in the next 15 years that could threaten the contiguous 48 states or Canada 1998 Congressionally appointed Rumsfeld Commission disagree US might well have little or no warning before operational deployment 1999 NIE quotWe project that during the next 15 years the United States most likely will face ICBM threats from Russia China and North Korea probably from Iran and possibly from Iraqquot could v likely standard PreWar Iraq Estimate Oct 2002 NIE Iraq s Continuing Programs for WMD Senate Committee concludes most of the major keyjudgments overstated or were not supported by the underlying intelligence
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