Biology Lecture Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karishma Saini on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 101 at Pace University taught by Professor Nancy Krucher in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Biology Lecture Notes Chapters 15 What is biology Well it is a study of life Life which uses energy response to the environment reproduction growth homeostasis evolutionary adaptation and order There are two types of cells in biology which are called eukaryotic and prokaryotic The differences between these two main cells are their sizes which the eukaryotic is 10100x larger compared to prokaryotic cell Furthermore a eukaryotic contains a nucleus where the DNA are located in a dense core Since eukaryotic cell have a nucleus the prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus which cause the DNA to roam freely inside the cell Prokaryotic cell are found in bacteria while eukaryotic are found in animal fungi plants protist and ameba Although there are many differences between these two cells they both have plasma membrane DNA are instructions in making humans They are instructions of building proteins are responsible in building 29000 genes While proteins provide 1020000 genes In total humans have 3000049000 genes Chapter 2 Elementa substance that cannot be broken down into other substances Elements are from Greek or Latin such as Au stands for gold Every element starts with a capital letter while the rest is lowercase letters When two are more elements are combined together it forms a compound Elements are so important that they make up 96 of human those elements that make up the 96 are nitrogen N carbonC oxygen 0 and hydrogen H While the 4 are calcium Ca phosphorus P Potassium K Sulfur S Sodium Na Cl Chlorine and Mg Magnesium There are elements that carry oxygen which are known as trace elements such as Iron Fe Besides elements there are atoms which are the smallest possible amount of an element which returns the properties of an element An atom consists of protons neutrons and electrons An electron have a negative charge a proton has a positive charge and a neutrons does not have any charges An atom has a nucleus which consists of neutrons and protons while the electrons are outside the nucleus The mass of the protons and the neutrons are the same amount of mass While an electron has a smaller mass An atomic number is the number of protons in a nucleus of an element which also helps determine the identity of an element Also the atomic number is also the number of electrons The atomic mass is the mass of an element which is the amount of protons the amount of neutrons Isotopes are all atoms of an element that have the same atomic number but have more neutrons which makes the element weight more For example Carbon 12 6 neutrons and Carbon 13 7 neutrons also an unequal amount of neutrons and protons causes an unstable release of radioactive Since electrons are arou e cleus electrons are found the orbital or shells that orbit the nucleus O rbitals or shells The first shell usually contains 2 electrons while the second and the third Shells contains 8 electrons 39 Valence at a hydI Ogcu ClUlllUllL dOGS Valence are the outermost shell or orbital It is i l not have a nucleus which only has one proton A 0 atoms are shared to fill the valence shell While a covalent bond is when t air of electrons There are two types of covalent bond which is nonpolar and polar nonpolar bond is when two atoms are shared EQUALLY between two atoms Polar bond is when an atom pulls an electron towards the atom which is an UNEQUAL amount of electrons shared Anytime there is a bond shared with an oxygen 0 most likely a polar covalent bond An oxygen 0 is stronger and can pull an electron towards the oxygen when it is pair together An ionic bond is an electronegativity wanting of electrons is imbalance it cause an electron to be strip away from an atom So for an example VS 7 Since Sodium only has one electron and Chlorine needs one electron The Chlorine is going to take an electron away from the Sodium so that the Chlorine valence shell will be filled Plus once Sodium electron is stripped away from it shell it becomes a cation because the element becomes a positive Na While the Chlorine gains an electron it becomes a anion Cl39 Hydrogen bonds are very weak usually attracted to a nearby oxygen or nitrogen which cause a strong interaction between the electrons Chapter 3 Water is very important since life begins with water and most of our cells contains 7090 of water Since the water molecule contains an oxygen it becomes a covalent polar bond Usually oxygen are negative charged while the hydrogen are positively charged When hydrogen bonds are formed and reformed when they are held together it is known as cohesion Solution liquid is a mixture of two or more substances Solvent is the dissolving agent while solute is the item being dissolved An aqueous solution is when a water becomes a solvent for a certain substance Ph scale measure of acidity as the number increases its value it becomes basic but as the number decrease its value it becomes acidic However 7 is consider neutral Chapter 4 Carbon has an ability to make four bonds also known as tetravalent While we know that hydrogen only needs one electron therefore it can only make one bond For oxygen it needs two electrons which causes the oxygen to make two bonds or a double bond Nitrogen makes 3 bonds Hydrocarbon We can have the similar molecular C4H10 but H CH4 but d1fferent structural formula There are three isomers structural isomers geometric isomers C H an enantlomers A structural Isomers has the s1m11ar molecular formula but structural different from the amount of carbons in the formula Geometric isomers when both is going up H A B C C H H Geometric isomers OR when A and B are going in opposite directions Enantiomers are mirror images of each atoms It is very important to understand that structure is IMPORTANT One minor mistake in structure can cause a major problem for an example Thalidomide were sleeping pills made from a European company around 1960s Pregnant women were taking them which cause birth defects babies were born without arms and legs Due to an incorrect enantiomer Functional groups are chemical groups that are attached to carbon and perform important functions Carboxyl has an acidic properties since it can donate a hydrogen to a solution Aminoacids or Amines acts as a base can easily pick up hydrogen from solution Sulfhydryl also known as thiois which is a protein structure Phosphate which are negatively charged creates ATP and it is a protein structure Lastly Methyl is a gene expression Chapter 5 Macromolecules are large molecules consists of structure and function The macromolecules are carbohydrates proteins lipids and nucleic acids All of these macromolecules consists polymers which are also large molecules with identical building blocks or monomers Monomers are usually linked by removing a water molecule from the bond known as dehydration synthesis During this process it requires a lot of energy and enzymes which catalyzes to cause the energy to respond However can be broken by adding water which break the monomer off the polymer known as hydrolysis Carbohydrates Glucose are monosaccharide CHzO is the molecular formula Usually glucose consist multiple of CHZO In the structural formula the carbonyl CO are located at the end of the formula then it is known as aldose If the carbonyl is located at the center of the formula then it is known as ketoses The suffixes of 3 carbon is trioses 5 carbon is pentoses and 6 carbon is hexose Many of these macromolecules structures can be formed in ring forms Whenever two monosaccharide links together to expand their length it is called disaccharide The bond between the two sugars that link them together is called glyosidic linkage There are two types of glucose they can either be a glucose or 3 glucose The difference between these two glucose is that a glucose have the hydrolysis OH is going down while in the 3 glucose is going up There are four types of polysaccharide many sugars starch cellulose glycogen and chitin Starch are a glucose help form energy for plant cells and there are two types of starch Amylose and Amylopectin which is a branched formed of glucose Usually the branch structure have enough room to store addition glucose compared to other structures Glycogen is also a 1 glucose found in animal cell and is also a branched formed of glucose enough to make ATP energy Cellulose is a 3 glucose and are found in plant cell walls used to protect the plant cells Chitin are also 3 glucose used for a surgical thread Lipids are complex molecules formed by dehydracarbon synthesis Lipids consists of fats phospholipids steroid and proteins Fats are formed with glycerol linked with fatty acids which are long hydrocarbons and are linked by ester linkage formed between the glycerol and fatty acids Whenever there are hydrogen and carbons linked together with no charge then it known as hydrophobic Hydrophobic is when the molecules do not like water There are two types of fats saturated or unsaturated Saturated is a solid at room temperature there are no double bonds formed in the hydrocarbon chains and an example is butter While an unsaturated is a liquid at room temperature there are double bonds formed in the hydrogen bonds which caused it to have kinks in the fat and an example is oil Phospholipids The head of the phospholipids are hydrophilic which means it likes water While the tail does not have any charge it means that it is hydrophobic It is very important to known that they formed in bilayers of water and forms the cell membrane J Steroid are not considered as a polymers but make up important sex hormones which are teterones estrogen and cortisol Proteins are very important since they do most of the work in the cell such as growth development cell division Proteins know what the cell receive and how to respond to the outside signals Responsible in making ATP enzymes which catalyze reactions replicate genetic information and protects the cell inside and outside The monomer of the protein are amino acids which consists of amino group carboxyl group and an R group An R group provides amino acids Polymer are formed by dehydration synthesis and can form into polypeptide which are chains of amino acids Peptide is a bond between an amino acid They are 3D structures folded up that performs certain functions Vaccines is a way to prevent virus and bacteria from spreading in the body There are 4 levels of protein structures Primary 10 are sequences of amino acids Secondary 2 are a helix structure or 3 pleated sheets which are stabilized by hydrogen bonds Tertiary 3 are large portions of polypeptides formed together by disulfide bonds which are amino acid cysteines R group Quaternary 40 in order to make a protein functional it needs to form one polypeptide Hemoglobin are found in red blood cell which carries C02 and consists 4 polypeptide chains The sickle cell anemia are blood cells that cannot go into tissues due to the 3D structure of the hemoglobin which causes it to not carry 02 due to the one amino acid change in the chains Furthermore since it cannot carry 02 it is due to the mutation change in the DNA in the hemoglobin DNA again instructions for the cell and explain how proteins are being made They are located in the nucleus DNA are usually sends it s information to the RNA which are transmitted the information to the cytoplasm to ribosome Then it transfer the information to proteins which are synthesize polypeptides from the DNA and RNA information DNA are under the branch called nucleic acids which are also polymer of nucleotides The differences between DNA and RNA is that DNA has one oxygen missing that is why their sugars are called deoxyribose while in RNA it is called ribose Also the bases in DNA has C T A G while in RNA it has U instead of T Nucleotides are linked with polynucleotide and the bond that form this is called phosphodiester bond In structure forms DNA are double helix which is a ladder that is twisted into a helix while RNA is a single stranded structure In DNA double helix the sugars are paired AT and CG
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