Popular in Animal Science
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Jasa on Thursday September 25, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 1299 views.
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Date Created: 09/25/14
Most feeds fall into the following categories o ForagesRoughages I Dry forage and roughages I Pasture range plants and green forages I Silages fermented feed o Concentrates I Energy feeds I Protein supplements o Other I Mineral supplements I Vitamin supplements I Nonnutritive additives ForageRoughages o High fiber gt18 crude fiber o Fresh pasture green chop o Dried hay fodder o Fermented silage Concentrates o Low fiber energy or protein dense ltl8 crude fiber o Energy feed grain and by products o Protein supplements animal or plant Dry Forages Roughages gt18 crude fiber range 1850 High in cellulose hemicellulose and possibly lignin Low in readily digested carbos such as starch and sugars Protein content varies 30 for alfalfa to 2 3 for some straws EX grass and legume hay wheat straw cornstalks corncobs cottonseed hulls byproduct of the cotton industry peanut hulls and rice hulls Pasture Range Plants and Green Forages o Could be harvested as dry feeds that would be classified as dry foragesroughages o Moisture content 5085 but can be quite variable o EX Bermuda grass pasture sorghum sudan grass tall grass prairie species and wheat pasture OOOOO o To perserve feed o Silage if produced through the process of ensiling plant materials under anaerobic conditions o The plant material undergoes a controlled fermentation that procedures acids that then kill off bacteria molds and other destructive organisms o Fermentation uses nutrients and reduces the nutritive content of the material Nutritional Value of ForageRoughage o Many variables affect forage nutritional content I Maturity at the time of harvesting I Weather damage O I Soil fertility I Plant species I Harvesting method I Moisture content Maturity at the time of harvesting is the most important factor bc all nutrients decrease with maturity except fiber with increases The palatability and digestibility of a forage decreases with advancing maturity and increasing fiber level Good Quality Forage O OOOOO Relatively immature when harvested Green and leafy Soft pliable stems Free from mold mustiness or foreign material Palatable The further a forage gets from these ideal characteristics the poorer the quality and the more likely it will be thought of as a roughage Concentrates O 0 Low fiber ltl8 CF Energy or Protein Dense Protein Supplement I gt20 Protein Animal Proteins I gt47 crude protein I More balanced amount of essential amino acids I EX meatmeat scraps bonemeal milk bloodmeal fishmeal Plant Proteins I lt47 crude protein I EX Soybean meal Brewer s grain peanut oil meal dried distiller s grain Non Protein I EX Urea purified amino acids and ammonium salts Energy Feed I lt 20 Protein high in starchsugar I Cereal grains I By products from cereal grains ex corn hominy feed wheat bran I Fruits I Nuts Ex Corn sorghum grain oats barley rye wheat dried beet pulp dried Whey Energy Feeds 0 Energy values of grains is high with the TDN as high as 90 on a dry matter basis I Due to high starch content low fiber content and high digestibility Fed to ruminants and cecal fermenters to increase the energy density of their diets Fed to monogastrics as the primary source of energy Protein Supplements 0 0 gt20 crude protein some have high energy contents as well Since ruminants can convert the poorer quality proteins to higher quality microbial protein an effective cost reduction strategy is to feed the NPN sources and avoid the higher quality and this more expensive protein supplements Plant Origin I Primarily derived as products of the extraction of the oil from a group of seeds referred to as oilseeds bc of their high fat content These protein sources are this referred to as oilseed meals I The most important of these sources are soybeans and cottonseed I The protein content is generally at least 40 and highly digestible and protein quality is usually good Animal Origin I Derived as end products of the meat packing diary processing and marine industries I The most important of these are meat meal bonemeal bloodmeal feather meal dried milk and fishmeal I The milk products are the highest quality of the end products and generally the most expensive Non Protein Nitrogen I NPN generally refers to urea and other similar products I Urea and similar products must be used with functional ruminants only and then very carefully I The ruminant microbes are able to use substantial amounts of NPN and bc they are frequently of lower cost than proteins they are often used to cheapen a ration Mineral Supplements 0 0 All feeds contain at least some vitamins and minerals Animals need minerals and vitamins in much smaller amounts than they do the other nutrients but dietary needs must be met to achieve good animal performance and economical production Depending on the feeds used to balance a ration for the other nutrients concentrated sources of vitamins and or minerals may be needed Supplements I Salt often trace mineralized I Bone meal I Oyster shell I Calcium carbonate I Limestone I Fairly pure forms of other specific minerals Vitamin Supplements OOOO Ensiled yeast Liver meal Fish oil Wheat germ oil O Purified forms of individual vitamins Nonnutritive Additives 0 Catch all category for ingredients added to the rations for reasons other than their nutritive value EX antibiotics dyes avors hormones antioxidants emulsifying agents Purpose I To stimulate growth I To improve feed efficiency alter metabolism I To treat an illness or improve health I To synchronize estrus Regulated by the FDA
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