Chem 111 Week 3 lecture notes
Chem 111 Week 3 lecture notes 111/40551
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 111/40551 at University of St. Thomas taught by Uzcategui-White in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chemistry Week 3 Notes Chapter 223229 and Chapter 33133 Daltons Atomic Theory All matter consists of atoms Atoms of one element cannot be converted into atoms of another element Atoms of an element are identical in mass and other properties and are different from atoms of any other element Compounds result from the chemical combination of a specific ration of atoms of different elements JJ Thomson Called atoms electrons negative quotPlum pudding model Rutherford trying to help prove Thomson s theory expected cathode rays to pass through the the magnetic field but some bounced back concluded there has to be a charged mass surrounded by electrons Nuclear Theory of the Atom 1 Most of the atoms mass and all of it s positive charge are contained in a small core called the nucleus 2 Most of the volume of the atom is empty space through which tiny negatively charged electrons are dispersed The Atom Nucleus in center Protons and neutrons In center Electrons dispersed throughout Number of protons number of electrons Atomic number 2 the number of protons a nucleus has Atomic mass A the protons plus the number of neutrons a nucleus will have Formulas AZ N orA P N N A Z Symbol representation of the element by using a one or two letter abbreviation Isotopes an element that has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons Example 35 3497 amu 7577 37 3697 amu 2423 Cl Cl 17 17 atomic mass average sum of all mass of isotope x fractional abundance ex atomic mass 3497 amu x 7577100 3697 amu x 2423100 3545 amu amu atomic mass unit Exercise problem Calculate the percent abundance of copper and each isotope 63 Cu 629396 amu 64 Cu 649278 amu Cu 63546 amu 63546 amu 629396 amu x X 649278 amu x 1x 14268 20338 X X 6950 63 Cu 6950 6950 65 Cu 16950 305 305 The Periodic Table Period move horizontally Group move vertically Classifications 1 metals good conductors react through losing electrons 2 Nonmetals bad conductor easy to break react by gaining electrons 3 Metalloid superconducts 6 mixed properties Family Names 1A except hydrogen alkali metals 2A alkaline earth metals 7A halogens very reactive 8A noble gases unreactive 3BZB transition metals compounds bonding onic Bonding transferring of electrons Covalent or molecular sharing electrons mmetal nonmetals IO charged particles or entities Cations positive ions metals Anions negative ions non metals onic Bonding is a result of electrostatic attraction Ions with higher charges attract or repel each other more stroneg than ions with lower charges Smaller ions attract or repel each other more strongly than other ions because their charges are closer together Ex NaCl Na 9 11e Na 10 e becomes more like neon Cl 9 17 e Cl 18 e takes the extra electron onic Formula Ca F Ca 2 F 9 CaF2 MgO Mg2 O 2 9 MgZoZ 9 MgO Covalent Bonding The sharing of electrons Non metal metal Ex hydrogen HH Polyatomic Ions Covalent bonding OF H NH4 only covalent NH4Br 9 ionic bonding Ba 2 OH Ba OH2 9 ionic bonding covalent bonding Examples 1 Potassium nitrate incorporate ioniccovalent or both K N03 9 K N03 ionic and covalent bond Formulas Names and Masses of Compounds Binary ionic compounds those containing only 2 different elements Name of Cation metal Base name of anion non metal ide NaCl 9 sodium chloride MgO 9 Magnesium oxide onic Compounds w Metals that form more than one ion name of cation metal charge of cation in roman numerals in parentheses base name of anion non metal ide ex Fe CB 9 Iron Chloride Fe Cl2 9 Iron Chloride CrO 9 Chromium oxide onic Compounds containing a Polyatomic Ions name of cation metal name of the polyatomic ion ex Na N03 9 sodium nitrate NH4 Br 9 NH4 Br ammonium bromide start w metal or positive first onic Compounds containing two Polyatomic Ions name of cation polyatomic ion name of ion polyatomic ion ex NH4OH NH4 OH 9 ammonium hydroxide N03 more oxygen nitrate ate more NOZ fewer oxygen quotitequot nitrite CIO hypochlorite CIOZ chlorite C03 chlorate CO4 perchlorate Hydrated Ionic Compounds hydrates have a specific number of water molecules in each formula unit Name of cation charge of cation in roman numerals base name of anion non metal ide of water molecules prefix plus hydrate Ex CoCl2 x 6H20 CoClZ 9 cobalt II hexahydrate CaSO4 x ZHZO 9 calcium sulfate dihydrate 9 calcium II sulfate dihydrate Molecular compounds that form H ions when dissolved in water Acids 9 only hydrogen nonmetals binary acids Binary Acids Acids composed of of hydrogen and a non metal Hydro Base name of nonmetal ic acid Ex HCI 9 hydrochloric acid Hbr9 hydrobromic acid When hydrogen in front usually an acid ic most likely indicates an acid Oxyacids acids that contain oxygen 0xyacids can be divided in two types depending on the number of oxygen the oxyanion has oxyanions ending with ate Base name of anion ic acid Ex HN03 9 nitric acid H2504 9 sulfuric acid H2503 9 sulfurous acid 0xyanions ending with ide Base name of anion ous acid Ex HCL04 9 perchlorous acid Molecular covalent compounds Molecular compounds from 2 or more non metals Binary molecules compounds Prefix name of first element prefix base name of 2nOI element ide Ex C02 9 monocarbon dioxide 9 carbon dioxide Always name first the one that has more metal like properties N20 9 dinitrogen monoxide CC4 9 tetrachloride Hydrocarbons simplest organic compounds covalent species contain only carbon and hydrogen Base name carbon atoms in the chain ane Molecular Masses Molecular weight or molecular mass MW or M covalent MW atomic masses x atoms Ex CC4 9 MW 11201amu 43545amu 15881 amu CoCl2 x 6H20 9 MW 15893 amu 2 3545 amu 12 1008 amu 6 1600 amu Exercise Problems a Tin IV chloride 9 SnCl4 b FeBr3 9 iron Bromide c Mn203 9 Manganese oxide 274 calculate MW a oxygen in aluminum sulfate A2 SO43 MW 2 2698 3 3207 12 1600 34220 amu 12 molecules of oxygen 281 Give the systematic Name a CuSO4 x 5H20 9 copper sulfate pentahydrate b CaOH2 9 calcium hydroxide c Na2C03 9 sodium carbonate d MgSO4 x 7H20 9 magnesium sulfate heptahydrate e H2504 9 Sulfuric Acid 255 calcium z20 iodine 253 sample 74 x 10quot21 how many iodide ions does it have Cal 9 Ca 2 74 x 10quot21 Ca 2 ions x 2 ions 1 ion Ca 2 ions 74 x 10quot21 x 2 ions 15x10quot22 ions CHAPTER 3 Stoichiometry Section 1 Numerical relationship between chemical quantities in a balanced equation or formula Balanced equation in moles H2 I2 9 2 HI molecules Mol is used to convert numbers of atomsmolecules to grams of atomsmolecules Moles grams molar mass Mole mol SI unit for amount of substance defined as the amount of substance that contains the same of entities as the same of atoms in 12g carbon 12 avogadro s quot1 mol 6022 x 10quot23 entities grams 9 mols 9 of entities amount 1 amu 1 grammol mass of an element of atoms of element x atomic mass of element molecular mass ex of H in H20 2 H X 1008 amu 18016 112 9 112 H in H20 311 of 0 atoms in 73 x 1043 g of CaSO4 x H20 mass 9 amount atoms of 0 amount 73 x 1043 g MW 14008 gmol 13207 gmol 61600 gmol 17215 g mol 73 x 1043 g x 1 mol17215 g 424 x 10quot5 mol 424quot5 mol CaSO4 x 2H20 x 6mo 01 mol CaSO4 x 2H20 254 x 10quot4 0 x 6022 x 10423 atoms 0 mol 0 15x 10420 atoms 0 318 Mass in Strontium Periodate Sr 042 9 MW 46942 g mol mass 2 x 1269 gmol 46942 gmol x 100 5407 Section 33 Writing balanced equations CH4 g 202 g 9 C02 g 2 H20 g 1 C 1 4 H 4 4 0 4 States for Reactants and Products g 9 gaseous I 9 liquid s 9 solid aq 9 aqueous water solution always make sure the equation is balanced 337 write balanced equations a Cu 5 58 s 9 Cu25 5 answer 16 Cu 5 58 s 9 8 Cu2 s b P4010 s H20 I 9 H2PO4 I answer P4010 s 6H20 I 9 4 H2PO4 I
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