Week 3 Lecture Notes
Week 3 Lecture Notes HIS 101 Cr.3
UW - L
Popular in Global Origins of the Modern World
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Hansen on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 Cr.3 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by Dr. Gerald Iguchi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Global Origins of the Modern World in History at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Getting Medieval On You Class Continued Ends of the Middle Ages What were the Middle Ages Medieval Period in the middle of 0 Ancient and Renaissance Does the idea of the good times of the ancient world followed by the darkness of the medieval world and the rebirth and enlightenment of the modern world remind you of anything Middle ages Sm16th centuries as time when nothing happened Is to believe in propaganda of Middle Ages a serf is a serf is a serf and must stay a serf as well as the selfcongratulatory rhetoric of the Renaissance 14th 16th centuries Enlightenment 17th and 18th centuries and Modern Period Trade developed which was largely thanks to the barbarian enemies of the Catholic Christian Medievals Vikings Central Asian nomads chiefly MongolsTurks Muslims Byzantines Viking world largely same regions as Hanseatic League World 13 17th centuries Vikings Founded Dublin Ireland 0 Viking World largely same religions as Hanseatic League World 13quot 17th centuries Hanseatic League World A medieval association of north German cities formed in 1241 and surviving until the 19th century In the later Middle Ages it included over 100 towns and functioned as an independent political power 0 Settled Iceland in the 900 s Settled by Rilo the Viking the leader 0 Also conquered Sicily o Went East to Black Sea and Mediterranean Mongol World which lead to global trade routes under Pax Mongloica 13th and 14th centuries 0 Pax Mongolica Mongolian Peace along with trade Muslim world which preserved and developed understanding of classical Greek and Roman texts promoted global trade directly and via Italian citystates of Venice Genoa Florence Milan Verona and others and provided Iberians with technologies Iateen sail compass etc enabling discovery of New World and routes to Asia around Africa Byzantines also maintained classical culture until conquest by Turks Islamized Central Asian nomads 1453 foundations of Greek Orthodox culture which made its way to much of SlavicEastern Europe Czar Caesar Christopher Columbus kept a copy of Marco Polo s book about china under his pillow Italian CityState Republic 0 Venice Important trading city 0 Genoa Important trading city at the end of middle ages In fact the Italian citystate republics which began to escape from feudalism and develop as early as 12 century connected the trade centers of the formerly Viking World Hanseatic League with the Mongol world and its remnants Khanate of Crimea the Muslim world and the Byzantines all via their bases in the heart of the Mediterranean Italy 0 They were also stimulus to transatlantic and around Africa trade Columbus was Genoese Effects on Europe of intercourse w outside 0 New technologies such as the Central Asian stirrup military and general transportation 0 lateen sail and compass trade and military 0 heavy plow and Central Asian Style harness for plow horses increasing yield 0 papermaking technologies via China and Muslim world and the printing press that is also traceable to China allowing for permanence of word and diffusion of textsideasIiteracy plus formation of modern and national languages 0 Reintroduction and introduction of watermills and windmills to Europe via Islamic SpainMuslim world early industrialization 0 Trade with outside and availability of luxury goods like spices and wine stimulated production of surplus food cropping and cash cropping and development of more efficiency along with growth of towns and cities where artisans worked and merchants traded Trade between Europe and outside stimulated trade between regions of Europe Both artisans and merchants typically escaped serfs or their descendants formed new class of burghers or bourgeoisie literally citydwellers who formed new economic elite that had motivation to progress in terms of ever greater profit As system of manors sealed off from outside world broke down wealth became concentrated and power became centralized 0 Growth of kingdoms that would form basis for modern nationstates France filledin with people beginning to consider themselves French England with the English etc Exposure to spices and other exotic commodities from the Indies led to Europe39s Age of Discovery which formed initial stages of European imperialism and Western domination of the planet Black Plague of 134850 killed around 50 of European population demonstrating thorough interrelationship between Europe and Asia by that time May have stimulated more efficient means of production 0 In general Eurasian and African diseases made Europeans carriers of biological weapons in the Americas and Pacific Early Modern Revolutions Ages of discovery and scientific revolution It was also characterized by growing power of the citydwelling burghers or bourgeoisie along with the renaissance and the Protestant Reformation Protestant Reformation question traditional authority Grandfather Grandmother Father Affected all religions on the planet Was a period in which Westerners pioneered a redefinition of the world and its contents as a humanly understandable closed system often imagined or realized in terms of circulation of planets around the sun of blood in the bodies of animals and of ships around the world Lastly it was a period in which globalizing trade and the flow of wealth into Europe as a result of early imperialismcolonialism This complex history laid the foundations for the modern world as we know it which is characterized by among other things the global political economic and cultural domination of the West but also the interweaving eventually of every region on the planet in political social economic and cultural terms Early Modern Revolutions The Beginnings of Western Domination of the World Issues 1 Rise of burghers or bourgeoisie as citydwelling class of merchants artisans and investors who form estate outside peasantnobilityclergy structure in feudal society begin especially in Italian citystates Genoa Venice etc They form 3rOI estate in France and elsewhere 2 New relationships between people as individuals or commoner collectivities and authority God church lordking decentering Renaissance Protestant Reformation 3 New emphasis on ideology of sovereign individual the selfmade man instead of man as benefactor of inheritance or man as passive victim of fateGodtradition Sovereign acting or done independently and without outside interference 4 Relative democratization of knowledge through technology printing press and medium of culture vernacular literature bibles 5 Development of market relations and eventually banking that enable accumulation of wealth through cycle of investmentprofitreinvestment 6 Demystification via discovery of routesterritory and laws in terms of geography anatomy astronomy physics 7 Above shifts reflected in arts and literature Da Vinci and Michelangelo Shakespeare 8 Origins of sense of the West as not only different from or even simply superior to the rest but superior on an evolutionary or developmental scale For Columbus indigenous Americans are like children if they are cooperative and like animals if they are not which contrasts with Marco Polo 12541324 and his impressions of nonWest Kublai Khan39s China as fantastic and superior to Europe 9 Movement of center of modem or modernizing West from Italian cities to Iberian kingdoms to Dutch Republic to England ReligiousIntellectual Revolution Circa 1436 Johannes Gutenberg formerly a goldsmith begins work on printing press which makes innovative use of alloyed metals improving upon Asian models that used clay wood or bronze to make type Circa around same time as printing press Gunpowder practically applied in hand cannons and then arquebus 1450s Gutenberg Bible in Vulgate Latin made with Johannes Gutenberg39s printing press 1487 Leonardo da Vinci draws Vitruvian Man 1508 Martin Luther begins teaching at University of Wittenberg 15101511 Raphael paints The School of Athens 1511 Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simon paints Sistine Chapel including The Creation of Adam 1517 Augustinian monk and University professor Martin Luther nails 95 theses to Castle Church in Wittenburg today39s Germany 1519 Luther publishes New Testament in German translation 1519 Swiss reformer Ulrich Zwingli stays in his city of Zurich despite having caught plague in order to perform pastoral duties writes Pestlied plague song 1520 Luther threatened with Papal Bull which Luther burns 1521 Luther excommunicated from Roman Catholic Church 1525 William Tyndale publishes first fully printed text of translation of New Testament into vernacular English 15251529 Swiss German New Testament translated in part by Zwingli printed in Zurich 1530 Complete version of Bible in French published in Antwerp 1531 First Swiss German complete Bible translated in part by Zwingli and printed in Zurich 1534 Luther completes translation of both testaments of Holy Bible into German 1534 Henry Vll separates from Roman Catholic Church forming the Church of England
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