Chapters 7 and 8 Reading Notes
Chapters 7 and 8 Reading Notes SPHU 1010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dkrefft on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPHU 1010 at Tulane University taught by Mark Dal Corso in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Intro to public health in Public Health at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 7 Reading Notes Communicable disease a disease due to an organism such as bacteria or a virus that is transmitted person to person or from animals or the physical environment to humans by a variety of routes including from air and water contaminated articles or fomites and insect bites and animal bites Here considered a subset of infectious disease 0 Infectious disease a disease caused by an organism such as bacteria or a virus Here used to include communicable diseases as well as other infections that are not communicable lnfections invasion of host s bodily tissues by an organism such as bacteria or a virus 0 Epidemic a term used when a disease has increased in frequency in a defined geographic area far above its usual rate 0 Endemic a term that implies that a disease is present in a community at all times but at a relatively low rate 0 Pandemic an epidemic occurring worldwide or over a very wide area crossing international boundaries and affecting a large number of people 0 Koch s postulates 4 postulates that together definitely establish a cause and effect for a communicable disease the organism must be shown to be present in every case of the disease the organism must not be found in cases of other diseases once isolated the organism must be capable of replicating the disease in an experimental animal the organism must be recoverable from that animal 0 Modern Koch s postulates a set of criteria for establishing that an organism is a contributory cause of a disease requiring evidence of an epidemiological dissociation isolation and transmissions 0 Route of transmission the anatomical and physiological methods for transmission from person to person or from animal species to humans Asymptomatic transmission the ability to transmit the disease while humans or animals are free from symptoms of the disease Reproduction ratio R0 the number of new cases one individual with the disease generates on average over the course of the diseases communicable period Chronic carriers those individuals without symptoms of the disease but with the ability to chronically transmit the disease lmmunization the strengthening of the immune system to prevent or control disease through exposure to antigens or administration of antibodies Passive immunity short term protection against a disease provided by the administration of antibodies lnactivated vaccine dead vaccine injection of a nonliving organism or antigens from an organism designed to develop antibodies to protect an individual from the disease Live vaccines attenuated vaccines use of a living organism in a vaccine Living organisms included in vaccines are expected to be attenuated or altered to greatly reduce the chances that they will themselves produce disease Antibody a protein produced by the body in response to a foreign antigen that can bind to the antigen and facilitate its elimination Cellmeditated immunity immunological protections that is produced the tlymphocytes and other white blood cells that combats intracellular pathogens and tumor cells Herd immunity population immunity protection of an entire populations from a communicable disease by obtaining individual immunity through vaccination or natural infections by a large percentage of the population 0 Case finding as used in public health an effort to identify and locate contacts of individuals diagnosed with a disease and evaluate them for possible treatment 0 lnfectivity the ability of a pathogen to enter and multiply in a susceptible host 0 Epidemiological treatment treatment of contacts of an individual with a disease even in the absence of evidence of transmission of the disease 0 Ring vaccination as used in the smallpox eradication program immediate vaccination of populations in surrounding geographic areas after identification of a case of disease Chapter 8 Reading Notes Unaltered environment the natural environment 0 Altered environment the impact of chemicals radiation and biological products that humans introduce into the environment 0 Built environment the physical environment constructed by human beings 0 Risk assessment a process used in environmental health to formally assess the potential for harm due to a hazard taking into account factors such as likelihood timing and duration of exposure 0 Public health assessment a formal assessment that incorporates risk assessment but also includes data on the actual exposure of a population to a hazard 0 Interaction analysis an approach to environmental health assessment that looks at the consequences of two or more exposures Hazards a measure of the inherent capability of a substance to produce harm 0 Hazard identification a step in risk assessment that looks at the health effects caused by a pollutant Doseresponse relationship a relationship that is present if changes in levels of an exposure are associated with changes in frequency of the outcome in a constant direction Exposure assessment a step of risk assessment which assesses who has been exposed to a pollutant and the extent to which the exposure took place Risk characterization a step in risk assessments that looks at the extra risk of health problems in an exposed population lnteraction analysis an approach to environmental health assessment that looks at the consequence of two or more exposures Multiplicative interaction a type of interaction between two or more exposures are present is best estimated by multiplying the relative risk of each of the exposures Intentional injuries injuries that are brought about on purpose whether the injury is self inflicted or meant for others Unintentional injuries injuries that occur not on purpose such as most motor vehicle collisions drowning falls fires and poisonings All hazards approach an approach to public health preparedness that uses the same approach to preparing for many types of disasters including use of surveillance systems communications systems evacuations and an organized health care response The following issues affect the risk 0 Route of exposure 0 Timing of exposure 0 Stage of life 0 Other diseases 0 Special sensitivities 0 When approaching violence and injury the CDC 0 Identifies and monitors the injury problem 0 Conducts research to guide decision making 0 Empowers states through funding and technical assistance 0 Builds partnerships for prevention 0 Builds awareness through communication and education 0 Collaborates with partners around the globe to prevent violence and injuries globally
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