Week 6 Lecture Notes
Week 6 Lecture Notes PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Week 6 Notes Monday 921 Social behavior of the week Are you aware of your own prejudices Explicit measures of attitudes ex surveys measure your conscious controlled expressions of attitudes and prejudice Implicit measures based on response time may uncover what you actually think Visit the website of the Implicit Association Test IAT httpsimplicitharvardeduimplicit Complete the measure of racial attitudes Was the result surprising Do you think the IAT has any validity Why or why not How does it compare to explicit measures of attitude Remember 0 Kelley s Covariation contains three parts consensus consistency and distinctiveness Example if you have high consensus high consistency and high distinctiveness gt External Attribution o The fundamental attribution error says that people in Western cultures not including India tend to underestimate the situational pressures and attributes the behaviors of others to internal causes 0 These two topics were the most commonly missed on Exam 2 Only 20 years ago most Americans were against gay marriage Huge change in attitudes about this topic Attitudes surrounding abortion have not changed much this topic is highly controversial and complex Attitudes Positive and Negative Dimensions 0 Low positive low negative reaction gt Indifference 0 Low positive high negative gt Negative attitude 0 High positive low negative gt Positive attitude 0 High positive high negative gt Dual attitudes ambivalence The traditional three component view of attitude 0 Affect emotional reaction 0 Behavior actions 0 Cognition your beliefs 0 The three are only somewhat related to each other sometimes people think and feel a certain way but act a different way An alternative view Theory of Planned Behavior TPB o Allows for good prediction of behavior while the other two views of attitude aren t as good 0 Intention your plan I Attitude toward behavior I Subjective norms what you think other people want you to do what is socially appropriate I Perceived control something that prevents you from completing the behavior ex the behavior is buying ice cream something that could stop you from doing so is if you have no money to spend on it Attitude formation O Mere exposure we like the familiar more likely to vote for class president whose name is plastered all over the school even though you don t even know them Learning by operant conditioning after behavior emitted feedback determines its future frequency 0 0 If you are training your dog you feed them a treat when they successfully completely a command Reward increases frequency gt positive attitudes Punishment decreases frequency gt negative attitudes Popularized by B F Skinner Learning by Classical Conditioning 0 Pavlov s dog is an example of this Start with a re ex in Pavlov s dog the re ex is salivating when food is presented Pair the unconditioned response with a neutral stimulus ringing a bell paired with presenting food Now your neutral stimulus will cause a conditioned response ringing the bell causes the dog to salivate Classical conditioning is stimulus substitution lt You can expect to see this on the next exam Wednesday 923 Walks Ikl 0n r 4 l 39n r q f 4 3911p ru n u lquot 531 1 JHOEJ v 14 a n quotmmw Um Neutral 50mm M c ml mum Rum ROW 513m u39n hr n Mu Iladawn A E 9 I l b L CO39U RH up 39r by 539quot quot 39 ulu bt39 Untoadamant W Conannoon um 5w ow lt Dr Reeder emphasized this Expect to see it on the next exam 0 This is also called evaluative conditioning via positive associations 0 Example pairing your product with a model Balance theory likeable sources are more persuasive o Heider s balance theory Person the other person and the product Balance exists when I All three relationships are positive I Two are negative and one is positive I Example of 2 negative 1 positive you dislike a celebrity and he endorses a product so you will dislike the product they are endorsing 0 Advertisers want to use likeable people to endorse their product Source Credibility 0 Expertise credible communications know the facts 0 Motives credible communicators are trustworthy they don t have a history of lying 0 High credibility makes sources more in uential Sleeper Effect in uence of the source diminishes over time people kind of forget who the source was that gave you the information dissociate source and message if they are reminded of the source then the persuasiveness of a credible source comes back 0 That means beliefs in a message from a low credibility source may increase over time you forget the source but remember the message Fear and Persuasion fear is a strongly in uential force The Message logical vs emotional 0 Recall baserate fallacy vivid dramatic things tend to be more in uential than statistics 0 A scary message captures attention motivates in the short term but in the long term people tend to forget over time Fear appeals work when 0 There is strong fear 0 Dangers are believable 0 Specific advice is provided Order of presentation matters 0 Primacy Effect when the first message people hear is more in uential o Recency Effect when the most recent message is more in uential 0 First message can be effective because you have people s attention easier to remember 0 Last message can be effective because it s fresh in the person s mind Friday 925 Crucial variable is TIME time separating the first message and second message and the time between the second message and the decision will in uence whether there is primacy effect or recency effect 0 Primacy M1 M2 Decision 0 Recency M1 M2 Decision Channel how the message is communicated 0 Comparing radio TV and personal contact which is more effective 0 Personal contact is best but it s much easier to reach more people with the mass media techniques Comparing video to a written message 0 For an easy message video is more effective It captures people s attention 0 For complex messages written message will be more effective 0 Reason for this Comprehension If they are reading they can always reread take the time to really comprehend it Receiver o Aspects of the audience that in uence persuasion Dual Process Model of Persuasion o Attitude change is in uenced by I Elaboration thinking about arguments in the message Two routes of persuasion 0 Central Route I Audience is involved in the issue I Elaboration is high I Persuasion is due to convincing information strong arguments 0 Peripheral Route I The audience is less involved I Low elaboration I Persuasion is due to simple cues or heuristics rules of thumb such as humor message puts audience in a good mood a big number of arguments 0 According to the elaboration likelihood model attitude can change can occur through the central route or the peripheral route gt dual process model 0 Called dual process model of persuasion Distraction leads to low elaboration 0 Makes a speaker less persuasive the audience s attention is elsewhere they are focused on the distraction instead of the speaker 0 Audience is less involved argument quality is not important people don t know if it s a valid argument or not might come off as more convincing than it really is because they re not paying attention Distraction hurts a strong argument but helps a weak argument Resistance to Persuasion O 0 Most messages fail Reactance if a source threatens our freedom we rebel Forewarning if told about a persuasion attempt we prepare by counterarguing Example Your uncle always dumps on your choice to major in psychology Your mother says he s coming over for dinner in an hour You spend the next hour coming up with arguments for being a psychology major Your uncle s persuasion will be very low Active Participation Our own behavior can in uence our attitudes