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GRG 304E Week 2 Notes

by: Cassidy Schap

GRG 304E Week 2 Notes GRG 304E

Cassidy Schap
GPA 3.78
Environmental Science: changing world
Thoralf Meyer

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About this Document

These are the notes from 9/10-9/12, Lectures 4 and 5.
Environmental Science: changing world
Thoralf Meyer
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Schap on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GRG 304E at University of Texas at Austin taught by Thoralf Meyer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science: changing world in Geography at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Lecture 04 91013 0 Conservation sensible management of resources 0 Terrace farming to prevent erosion Crop rotation Irrigation to increase crop yield Implies that people are living there and using the resources Preservation setting aside undisturbed areas 0 Maintaining them in a pristine state 0 Protecting them from human activity 0 Ex national parksno human population no extraction no use of resources 0 Big bend Goals of a NP research education preservation tourism recreation US currently has 58 0 First 200 yr of US history were times of widespread environmental destruction Prevailing frontier attitude was that of conquering nature and pro ting from it Protecting forests john james Audubon 17851851 Painted portraits of birds and plants 0 American forestry association citizens against the destruction of the forests Forest reserve act 1891 presidential authority to est forests as natl reserves on federal land out of the reach of loggers Harrison Cleveland mckinley t Roosevelt used it to create 43 m acres 0 Law was later modi ed to require acts of congress Roosevelt signed it after creating 21 new natl parks protecting additonal 16m acres Gifford Pinchot head of US forest service Promoted sustainable use of resources 0 Utilitarian conservationists Valued nat res bc of their usefulness to humans 0 Expanding forest reserves 0 Managing them scienti cally harvesting at sustainable rate 0 NP and monuments Congress declared 1st nat park was yellowtone 1872 0 John muir biocentric conservationalists believed in protecting nature from human interference bc all forms of life deserve respect Founded sierra club Advocated creation of Yosemite in CA PBS series by Ken Burns called US National Parks Antiques act 1906 pres authority to set aside sites of scienti c historicm or prehistoric importance By 1916 16 natl parks mananged by US army Now 58 NP 74 nat monuments managed by NP Service NP service created in1916 to manage parks for enjoyment without impairment As a result of con icts over preservation of sites such as hetch hetchy valley Yosemite in 1913 dam was built valley ooded 1950 s dam was not built in dinosaur nat monument bc lling the canyon with 400 ft of water would impair it conservation in mid 20th century FDR 18821945 Civilian conservation corps response to great depression 500k jobs in actvities to protect natural resources planting trees making pathsi nparks controlling oods Employed a lot of people Mitigated the Great Depression Dust bowl occurred as a result of overfarming in south texas Oklahoma Years of drought Became completely infertile Realized that this was an entirely manmade problem Soil conservation service 1935 promoted soil conservation practices Rachel Carson 19071964 Marine biologist wrote silent spring Raised public concern over pesticide use particularly DDT Insecticide dangers to birds and other wildlife contaminating human food supply Ultimately led to the restrictions on pesticide use Bioaccumulates as it moves from the bottom of the food chain to the top the concentration found in the organism is higher and higher Biomagnified concentration on lower end of the pyramid is low higher end is higher Affects the thickness of eggshells of birds making them thinner causing the eggs to crack when the parent tries to sit on the egg it cracks Affects bird at the top of food chain raptors falcons eagles Environmental movement Environmentalists people concerned about the environment Spring 1970 earth day was started Awakened US environmental consciousness 20 million people planted trees cleaned roadsides and riverbanks marched in parades to support resources conservation CITES convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and ora Restricts the trade of certain plants and animals and their byproducts Big players pandas tigers gorillas elephants rhinos You can still move them quotfor sciencequot Japanese use this as an excuse to carry on with whaling 1974 people realize that CFCs are fucking the ozone 1979 three mile island blows its shit biggest nuclear disaster in US history 1982 convention on the law of the sea recognizes that the ocean is a resource and cant be used excessively protects international waters 1984 worst industrial accident in the world happens in Bhopal when a pesticide plant released gas killing and injuring thousands had many long term effects sparked debate about safety of industrial plants in general 1986 Chernobyl oh fuck caused radioactive fallout over entirety of Europe quotpeople were freaking the fuck outquot especially bad on the capitalist side of the iron curtain 1987 Montreal protocol requires countries to phase out ozone depleting chemicals 1989 Exxon Valdez sinks and causes huge oil spill off the coast of Alaska cost the US billions to clean up 1991 worst oil spill in history happens in Kuwait during iraq war God damn it Hussein 1999 human population reaches 6 billion 2001 bush decides not to ratify the Kyoto protocol which mandates C02 emissions be reduced 2005 hurricane Katrina devastates part of the Gulf Coast poor environmental management exacerbates effects of a natural disaster few years ago Bastrop state park burned down completely and wiped out a couple thousand houses res are not always bad in savannas res are necessary biomass accumulates ad accumulates because there is no re to wipe it out we are doing this in the middle of Austin currently allowing res to burn regulates this on a small scale so it doesn t build up and explode into a massively unmanageable re some res can not be burned controllably particularly in cities ash juniper is particularly combustible national environmental policy act NEPA enviro protection agency EPA 1970 NEPA requires the federal government to consider the env impact of proposed dams higways etc Must develop ElSs env impact statement Describes short and long term env impacts and alternatves with fewer adverse effects NEPA must solicit public opinion on the EIS Lecture 05 chapter 4 Risk Toxicology Risk is inherent in life Risk management the process of identifying assessing and reducing risks Results are combined with relevant socialpoliticalecon data Leads to development and implementation of laws to regulate hazardous substances People often accept substantial risks and freak out about the minimal ones Risks over which we have no control tend to freak us out more Everything our bodies are exposed to are chemicals both natural and synthetic Chemicals with adverse effects toxicants Epidemiology studies the effects of toxicants bio agents physical hazards on the health of the human pop toxicology studying effects of toxicants on living organisms studies the mechanisms that cause toxicity and devs ways to prevent or minimize the effects acute toxicity effects of toxicant is immediate symptoms range from dizzinessnausea to death chronic toxicity effect is prolonged generally produces damage following long term low level exposure infectious agents disease causing agents enviro factors remain a signi cant cause of disease in the world despite med advances 25 of injurydisease is related to human caused enviro changes disrupt of natural enviro may give pathogens chance to thrive deforestationdam buildingetc increases contactdistrib of pathogens social factors concentrated urban poppeope are closer togetherdisease spreads faster global travel pop growth pop growth requires opening of new land for agriculture and travel ex malariamosquito transm Disease 200500 mil annual infections 1 mil deaths 60 species transmit it each species has unique optimal enviro elevation precip temp humidity surface water breed in almost any standing water body dammed water ideal breeding ground pandemic disease reaches nearly all parts of the world in uenza HIVAIDS bird u hard to give to human but is v deadly swine u understandingcontrolling requires understanding of enviroconditions that facilitate cooperation among govtsindividuals some toxicants particularly dangerous bc resist degredation travel quickly ie radioactive isotopes some pesticides PBDEs PCBs DDT DDT is best example Banned in 1972 in US Causes birds to lay eggs w thin shes Chicks die l extinction Persistent v stable takes yrs to break down into less toxic form bioaccumuatesorganism cant break it down stores in its tissues buildup of the toxicant over time is bioaccumuation biomagni cation increase in toxicant concentration as it goes thru foodchain DDT sprayed for mosquitoes l shrimp l eel l needle sh l gu Top carnivores most at risk Mobility in the environment Persistent toxins move through soil water and air le agric Pesticides run off into stream hurting aqua life At high concetrations life will die Lower concen will have chronic symptoms like bone degeneration decreased competitive abiity Globa ban of persistent organic pollutants Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants 2001 UN treaty to protect human health from the 12 most toxic persis organic pollutants POPs Exception DDT used to control malaria mosquitoes bc there is no affordable alternative Toxicity measures Dose the amt that enters the body Response type and amt of damage done by a particular dose Lethal dose causes death Expressed in mg per kg of body weight Sublethal dose causes harm but not death To nd the lethal dose Administer diff doses to lab animals Amount that kills 50 of subjects is LD50 Smaller the LD50 more toxic the chemical Effective dose 50 ED50 Causes 50 of the pop to exhibit a variety of responses le effect on fetus of pregnant animal reduced enzyme activity hair loss Threshold level max dose where toxicant has nose measurable effect Found by producing a doseresponse curve Test effects of a high dose and work way down to thresh level Many chemicals have no safe level at all Carcinogen substance chemical radiation virus that causes cancer Testing on animals is not always the best way to measure for human health Extrapolating from one species to another may overunderestimate toxicity Chemical mixtures surround us Interact via additivity synergy or antagonism Additive effect is exactly as expected given the individual effects of each component Chem w toxicity level 1 mixed w another toxic lvl 1 toxic lvl 2 Synergistic greater combined effects than expected Two toxic lvl 1 chems may have combined toxic level 3 Antagonistic result is smaller than expected Two tox lvl 1 chems having combo tox lvl 13 Children are often more suscep to toxic bc they weigh less Also bc they are developing and if toxicant effectsprevents dev child may suffer Precautionary principle we should not introduce new technology practice or material until it is proven that the risks are small amp bene ts outweigh risk Burden of proof rests on developers


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