GRG 304E Lectures 16-17 Notes
GRG 304E Lectures 16-17 Notes GRG 304E
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Schap on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GRG 304E at University of Texas at Austin taught by Thoralf Meyer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science: changing world in Geography at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Lecture 1617 Air and Air Pollution Global Distillation Effect 0 Chemicals enter the atm in warm region and are moved to cooler areas Chems bioaccum in body fat of top animals 0 Single bite of whale skin contains more PCBs than what is safe to consume in a week 0 Breast milk of Inuit women whale is part of diet has 5x more PCB than women in southern Canada Atmos gaseous envelope urrounding earth 0 Mostly nitrogen and oxygen 99 of dry air 0 Other gases 1 0 Water and traces of air pollutants Four layers troposphere stratosphere thermosphere mesosphere See diagram in text o Argon 93 0 C02 is one of main greenhouse gases 04 Ecosystem services Protects earth from UV radiation xrays cosmic rays Keeps earth s temp within living range Organisms depend on the atmos Organisms modify and balance the atmosphere w photosynth and resp Ozone behaves differently in tropo and strato o Atmos circulation Global circulation patterns 0 Differences in air temp rive circulation Hot air near equator expands and rises As it rises it expands and cool and sinks again Convection processes cause air currents that mix warmer and cooler parts of the atmosphere 0 Windsmaller scale horizontal movements Fluctuations in atmos pressure 0 Air pressure is variable depending on altitude temperature and humidity Winds blow from areas of high pressure to low pressure 0 Planet rotates coriolis effect 0 Low pressure systems rotate counterclockwise in the n hemisphere Air pressure is related to temperature Air mass temp creates different kinds of pressuredifferent types of wind Air pollution various chemicals gases liquids solids present in the atmos in high enough levels to be harmful to humans organisms or materials Primary air pollutants harmful chem That enter diretly into the atmos due to either human activities or nat processes soZ NOx Secondary pollutants harmful chemicals that form in the atmos when primary air pollutants react chemically wit hone another or with natural chem In the atmos Volcanoes emit a lot of sulfur and other gases that pollute it is not always anthropogenic causes Swamps and cows emit methane wetlands amp salt marshes as well Rice elds are one of the largest sources of methane on the planet Major classes of air pollutants Particulate matter dusts ash mists suspended in the atmos most are toxic or carcinogenic lead asbestos seas salt sulfuric acid Scatters and absorbs light reducing visibility Can corrode metals erode buildings and sculptures Eventually settles out but can remain suspended for years lnhaling particulates introduces the chem To the body Smaller particles are worse because they get deeper into the lungs Types of particulate matter NOx cars are biggest source with UV light they form radicals that form Ozone 03 which irritates human tissues sulfur oxides are main component of acid rain harms vegetation by damaging the stomata and forcing it to remain open which allows transpiration to occur in such a way that it dries the plant out completely carbon oxides CO is unstable and if you inhale too much of it it attaches to your blood cells and prevents oxygen from being transported throughout the body organism suffocates C02 creates carbonic acid which becomes a problem in the ocean when it comes in contact with coal reefs CaCO3 and the coral dies hydrocarbons burning fossil fuels carcinogens ozone know the two different kinds other hazardous air pollutants HAPs sources of air pollutants anthropogenic transportation nitrogen oxides carbon dioxides particles hydrocarbons industry particulate sulfur nitrogen ox from burning fossil fuels IE at power plants transportation 57 fuel combustion other than vehicles 21 industrial processes 12 misc 10 large part of which is agriculture air pollution injures organisms reduces visibility attacks and corrodes materials harms the resp tract of organisms worsens living conditions lungcardiovasc disease reduces productivity of crops involved in acid deposition global warming and ozone depletion ozone depletion is a problem in the stratosphere but seems to be getting better worst in the southern hemisphere UV concentration and carginogenic activity is worst in Australia new Zealand namibia worst of all Human health irriation of eyes and resp tract Suppression of immune system Chronic emphysima and bronchitis Review table in the book on different air pollutants amp their effect on humans Ozone problems are worst on hotsunny days 2 diff kinds of smog industrial and photochemical smogindustrial smog smoke pollution related to coal combustion sulfur oxide and particulate matter worse in winter due to fuel for heating laws have made it better in dev countries over past 20 years regulations have signi cantly lowered the sever y photochem LA 19405 involves NOx hydrocarbons and sunlight to produce secondary pollutants worse in summer due to higher sunlight levels sources automobiles drycleaners bakeries effects of weather and topography changes in temp produce air movements that disperse air pollutants temperature inversion pollutants get trapped by a cold layer of air close to the ground by a warm layer of air above it can last for several days certain topographies increase the likelihood ciites in valleys coastal areas leeward side of mountains air pollution in LA some of the worst smog in the world topography and climate are conducive to temp iversion 1969 CA became the rst state to enforce emission standards on motor vehicles stringent smog control laws LA has the cleanest air since the 50 s Urban heat islands local heat buildup in areas of high pop Concrete absorbs lots of heat and re ects it back during night time Affects the local weather conditions Increases the niumber of thunderstorms in the summer Areas near cities are affected by the pollution plumes from the industrial areas Technology exists to deal with air pollution Smokestacks w precipitators fabric lters and scrubbers to remove particulates Careful excavation sprinkling water over soil being moved also reduces particulates Measures that increase fuel efficiency Using low sulfur fuels or removing sulfur before combustion Modi ciation of furnaces and engines to provide fuller combustion Catalytic afterburners Reduction of spills and evaporation of petroleum and benzene Clean air act air quality has improved since 19705 Updated and amended in 1977 1990 Authorizes EPA to apply and enforce CAA by est limits on the amounts of speci c air pollutants permitted in the US Lead particulates CO NOx ozone Lead showed a 98 decrease bt 1970 and 1990 Since 2008 EPA can also regulate C02 Weather conditions in the atmos at a given place and time Varies hour to hour day to day Temp atmos pressure precip cloudiness humidty and wind Climate weather patterns that occur in a spec location over a period of years Determined by temp and precip Solar radiation temp changes with latitude and season based on the amt of sunlight received Rain shadows cause desertswindwardleeward sides Earth s avg daily temp is increasing based on measurements taken daily by meteorological stations weather balloons sea surface buoys NOAA global temps in 1995 and 20012009 may have been highest in 1000 yrs Spring in n hemi comes six days earlier anf fall arrives 5 days later Increase in heat waves and heat related deaths Sea levels rising glaciers retreating more sever hurricanes Human activites are laregely responsible for climate change IPCC UN intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts 184 degrees C increase in global temp by 2100 higher max temps more hot days fewer cold days increase in heat index Changes in precip patterns Every point on earth has PET potential evapotranspirationsum of all the water that gets released by evap and transpo
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