RTF 305 Week 4 Lecture Notes
RTF 305 Week 4 Lecture Notes RTF 305
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Schap on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RTF 305 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Joseph Straubhaar in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Media Studies in Film at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Media Effects 1 Huge range of how ppl try to understand hwo media effect ppl who watch In uences indivs o cognitions what they remember see how the brain processes it attitudes toward races sexualities gender etc o emotions is media causing us to be more angrycalm 0 opinions o behaviors one thing to watchinterp another to look at how ppl behve fundamentally diff going to war w a country in uences how people think we thought of Afghanistan as exotic place before now we associate it with terrorists have a speci c way of seeing that country attitudes like your self image what you think of spec group of ppl your country in general emotions like how you feel when you see American ag pride anger disappointment opinion news and news media what we think of con icts in middle east in Syria about other Americans have to think about the strength of that opinion all comes down to behavior like who you vote for could be strong or weaker than other factors media changes your opinions but when it comes down to it it doesn t affect our choices 2 broad approaches to underst effcts based on assmption of effect size and strength strong effects and limited effects designed to group our understanding size how many ppl it affects how widespread strength how dominant is media are people totally powerless when approaching media obj and media can exert great power over them or does it just sort of gently nudge them earlier theories tend to focus on strong effects bc interest in media effects came about bc ppl were incredibly afraid of propaganda because of Hitlernazi germany theorists believed that media could in uence entire nation and had incredible strength bc nazi followers were so loyal Americans took part in propaganda to try to get nation on board w WWII effort Many ppl thought America shouldn39t be ghting Media Effects 2 When you see propaganda you tend to think of v strong effects Hypodermic needle magic bullet is strongest of strong effects Essentially idea of insert media into brain and media will take over Media will tell you something and you will agree and later act on it Big impetus for censorship and selfregulation Fear of content effects leads to content regulation Fear most of kids because they cant sort out what s realnot Fear of media as weapon turning ppl directly toward anti social behavior Propaganda model Chomsky continuing power of ownership and political power to set ideology and media power to set hegemonic assumptions Has power to say all Americans are middle class and tell women what they should ideally be Another theory of strong effects Catharsis argues that media might be slightly positive in a way idea is that media users can essentially satisfy their desires thru media and lessens extent to which they want to act on it otherwise Ex violent video games satisfy urge to shoot someone Social learning is strong but not as strong as hypodermic needle say that consumers esp kids model or imitate attitudesbehaviors they see in media May try to act out what they see on TV Based on experimental evidence did study on child violence chilling effects Kids watched violence later imitated what they saw Have to wonder how directly media might affect ppl esp kids in behaviors by giving them ideas that they wouldn39t otherwise have had Ex coming to think that teenage motherhood when single is no big deal Ex even more general people watch action movies see idea of men who are really tough and don39t take crap get idea that this is what men are supposed to be like model selves after that idea Advertising as a medium can be considered strong effect Media images activate or stimulate related thoughts and behavior Theory is that ads directly show you image you will go buy it Idea is that we can deliver consumers to product Some ads are in your face telling you to buy stuff others are more subUe Media Effects 3 Sub idea that s assoc w ads priming Priming is strong effect in that it essentially makes you ready for stimulus response Think of pavlov s dog he rings bell pet comes to attention Trained to respond Advertisers use idea of priming show you things that make you want to do things Ads don39t generally say quotgo buy this nowquot they elicit emotional response that make you inclined to respond positively to whatever they want to sell you Cultivation theory strong effects argues that consistent messages over time create images of what reality is among audiences Each commercial doesn39t create a huge effect but repetition has effect Ex violence is pervasive in US and is increasing Old ppl see selves as victims they watch a lot of TV don39t have same mobility and spend more time in house constantly watching result is that senior citizens might tend to think world is more dangerous than it IS Ex ppl fear racial violence because of prevalence in TV imagery In reality this type of violence is rare and declining White people tend to be most afraid of violence even though they have lowest statistical chance of being affected General assumptions and limitations that unify strong effects theories Assumption is idea that audiences are both passive and homogenous Idea of strong effect is that people can t put up much resistance Tends to assume that all audiences will respond in same way Message appeals usually work idea that if producer of media sends you message and it will work will have intended effect and not unintended consequences Tends to give technology too much power over individuals Weak effects have effect but less direct not understood as direct effect bt media and user instead that there may be intermediary in the process or that we need to consider how audiences bring own perspectives Ex multistep ow selective processes active audience decoding against preferred reading Earliest theories also began w studying propaganda WWII gov used prop to not just support home effort but also demoralize enemy Realization that not all propaganda works Found that enemy propaganda didn39t have much effect on American soldiers had opposite effect US soldiers were able to make light of it Disproved the strong effects theories so we needed new ones Media Effects 4 Multistep ow opinion leaders would be in uential in ways others wouldnt Opinion leaders could be pillars of community intellectuals your boss etc someone w larger effect on multiple ppl Idea that media could have effect but it would be one step removed First step might be that op leaders would take in media effect and disperse what they thought to rest of community Selective processes brings us closer to idea of audience having a say in how messages are brought to them We have selective exposure we have power to change channel watch certain things and not others Also have selective perception on one hand we only take in ideas that don39t cause cognitive dissonance if we hear idea that doesn39t t our worldview we nd it easy to reject it out of hand Other hand audiences have ability to view through own kind of prism Ex daily show many see it as parody of news others see it as a liberal propaganda machine Selective retention we may remember certain things over other things Media is not total experience but sporadic How do ppl use media In what context ldea that sways concept of limited effects How much might people be swayed by opinion leader in household by fact that they re doing other things while consuming media by time of day what role it s serving in their life Politics of living room who gets to choose what show if there s a con ict of interest Reception theory largely hinges on assumption of active audience how do people make sensemeaning out of what they see Might interpret things that were never actually there not intended by media itself Needs active audience not one that is blindly receptive to being primed to have certain response that strikes back at media in certain way lmplies that audience is bringing something to table might interp something not intended by media creators People bring their own backgrounds to their interpretation Ex Dalas aired audiences in diff places had widely varying reactions In mid east they liked how much it reinforced importance of family didn39t retain the sleazier content In soviet countries saw it as burlesque of capitalism Formed interpretive community groups that come together and read media in a certain way even easier now that we can join blogs groups etc Why do people use media in rst place what leads to them to interact w media and then keep interacting Idea of usesgrati cations people have needs and used media to satisfy them Might watch comedy when they want to relaxfeel good Social learning users seekavoid media based on outcome expectations from prior experience If you watch horror movie and then cant sleep you ll avoid horror movies If you nd it thrilling you ll continue to watch
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