Chapter One: Humans and the Microbial World
Chapter One: Humans and the Microbial World MICRBIO 4000 - 0110
Popular in Basic and Practical Microbiology
Popular in Microbiology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Gonzalez on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MICRBIO 4000 - 0110 at Ohio State University taught by Madhura Pradhan,Tammy Bullwinkle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Basic and Practical Microbiology in Microbiology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter One Humans and the Microbial World Victoria Gonzalez Terms 1 2 0 Domain highest level of classi cation 0 Three domains Bacteria Archaea Eucarya Eukaryote organism composed of one or more eukaryotic cells Membrane bound nucleus Prokaryote single celled organism made up of a prokaryotic cell 0 Bacteria and Archaea Archaea prokaryotic cell that grows in harsh conditions 0 Virus nonliving infectious agent made of nucleic acidand a protein coat Viroid nonliving infectious agent made up of only RNA Prion nonliving infectious agent made up of only protein Pathogen microbes that cause disease Microbiota a community of microorganisms 11 Spontaneous Generation Microbiology the study of microscopic organisms bacteria viruses archaea fungi and protozoa a Microbes are the foundation of all life on Earth b Formation of microbiology i Anotony von Leeuwenhoek observed microbes using a curved lens microscope ii Robert Hooke observed bread mold Called it microscopic mushroomquot Spontaneous Generation belief that organisms arose from non living material a Louis Pasteur refuted spontaneous generation by showing that microbes will not form in a sterile substance until exposed to the microbes in the air i Endospores heat resistant bacteria made experiment hard to replicate b Tyndall showed that microorganisms can exist in a heat resistant form supported Pasteur c Ferdinand Cohn discovered endospores d Robert Koch discovered that bacteria causes diseases Demonstrated that anthrax was caused by sporeforming bacterium i Developed many lab techniques still used today ii Helped prove that speci c microorganisms that cause disease can spread from animal to animal e Jenner introduced smallpox vaccination 1 Henle proposed germ theory g Lister implemented antiseptic surgery h Alexander Fleming discovers the rst antibiotic penicillin 3 Golden Age of Microbiology rapid advances in the eld application of microbiology Began with Pasteur s work 12 A Human Perspective 1Medical Microbiology some microbes cause disease pathogens aMost microbes don t cause disease bLMicrobiota communities of microorganisms on the body iHelp with immunity cardiovascular health mental health etc c Roles of microbes iNitrogen is needed to make proteins microbes convert nitrogen gas into usable organic form LOxygen is replenished back into the atmosphere through photosynthetic organisms Degradation of organic compounds like cellulose in wastewater 13 Living Members of the Microbial World 1 Three Domains in the microbial world a Bacteria prokaryotes single celled have a nucleoid no nucleus i Peptidogycan cell walls ii Move with agella iii Multiply through binary ssion identical copies b Archaea proka ryotic c i Structurally similar to bacteria ii Genetically similar to eukaryotes iii Multiply by binary ssion iv Move with agella v Grow in very extreme environments Eucarya includes eukaryotes algae fungi and protozoa composed of one or more eukaryotic cells Cannot live in extreme environments i Algae single celled or multicellular protists 1Photosynthetic energy sunlight 2Usually in aquatic environments 3Use complex agella for movement 2 1 4Rigid cell wall ii Protozoa unicellular protists 1Do not have a rigid cell wall 2Aquatic and terrestrial 3Have a mouth to ingest organic compounds energy organics 4Smaer than algae and fungi only microscopic iii Fungi single celled yeast or muticeuar molds mushrooms 1Gain energy from breaking down organic material energy organics 2Mainly terrestrial 3Rigid cell wall iv Helminthes muticeuar parasites Nomenclature a First word Genus capitalized b Second word species not capitalized c All italicized or underlined d Number indicates the strain 14 Nonliving Members of the Microbial World Nonliving microbes a Viruses i Metabolically inactive without a host cell obligate intracellular parasite ii Nucleic acid RNA or DNA packed in a protein coat iii No ribosomes no gene expression of their own iv Need host nutrients to multiply v Can infect bacteria protozoa and eukaryotes b Viroids i Only a short piece of RNA ii Replicate inside host iii Only known to cause plant diseases Prions i Proteins no DNA or RNA ii Infectious cause neurodegenerative diseases iii Misfolded versions of normal proteins found in the brain iv Misfolded structure changes the function v Causes other proteins to misfold as well c l FHEEJJ jtlllii jda l Ii Agar lull liiullu e l39l39iai r39iii l l Li Pit55 1 Biggest to smallest a Eukaryotic cells b Bacteria c Viruses d Proteins e Molecules 15 Iti 39lifeii 413 r Weisi 7 W7 l Tim e Win2 iiEu39i m eimage igJa39i39ideeu Fm IIIJE IMCMT elmE of micrcierganisms have been grxwm 3 MI studied in the Size in the Microbial World
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