Chapter 2: Tools of a Healthy Diet
Chapter 2: Tools of a Healthy Diet HUMNNTR 2310 - 0010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Gonzalez on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HUMNNTR 2310 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Irene Hatsu in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Nutrition in Human Development at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 2 Tools of a Healthy Diet Victoria Gonzalez 1 Dietary reference intakes DRI provide guidance on the quantities of nutrients that are most likely to result in optimal heath a A collection of nutrient recommendations in the US and Canada to prevent chronic diseases b DRIs are set for all vitamins minerals water and other dietary compounds i EAR estimated average requirements 1 Nutrient intake values estimated to meet the ii RDA U39lhUUN needs of 50 of the individuals in speci c life group Set for 17 nutrients that have functional markers a Nutrient requirements are set based on the amount needed to keep these markers functioning Evaluates diet adequacy for groups not individuals recommended dietary allowances Daily nutrient intake amounts suf cient to 1 4 meet the needs of nearly all healthy individuals 97 in a life stage not everyone has the same RDA Based on EARs only nutrients with EAR Generally RDA EAR x 12 Used to evaluate current intakes Prevent chronic diseases not just de ciency Al a equate intakes Based on estimates of average intake that maintains a de ned nutritional state 2 Insuf cient information to set an EAR 3 Covers the needs of 97 of individuals in a life stage Set for some vitamins and minerals iv UL tolerable upper intake levels 1 Maximum daily intake a b Unlikely to cause adverse effects Refers to chronic daily uses not occasional high intake c Not a goal to reach a ceiling d Based on combined intake food water supplements v EER vi estimated energy requirements 1 Average daily caloric need to each lifestage group 2 Based on height weight gender age and physical activity AMDRS acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges 1 Range of intake as a percentage of energy a Associated with good health and reduced disease risk 2 Carbohydrates 4565 3 Fats 2035 4 Protein 1035 5 Essential fatty acids c Uses for DRls I ii iii iv Diet planning Aim for RDA or Al Do not exceed UL on chronic basis For healthy population 1 May be different if you have a disease or condition 2 Nutrient Density a Important tool to access nutrient quality of foods b Comparison of nutrient protein vitamin and minerals content to number of calories Divide the amount of the nutrient per serving by the recommended amounts Divide the calories in a serving by daily caloric need Compare the two c Nutrient dense greater contribution to nutrient need than calorie needs d Example iv 3 Food labels 17 year old girlEER of 1800 calories Eats orange 65 calories 70 mg of vitamin c 52 mg of calcium RDA for vitamin C 65 mg Ca 1300 mg 1 Vitamin C 7065100 108 2 Ca 521300100 4 3 Calories 651800100 4 Empty calorie junk food provides calories but few nutrients a Product name manufacturer s name and address amount of product in package ingredients in descending order by weight nutritional facts b Requires a label packaged and processed products if health claims are made c Doesn t require labels fresh fruit vegetables raw single ingredient meal poultry sh d Daily values DVS i Nutrition standards for food labels ii Standards set for people over 4 years old 1 Not infants pregnancy and lactating women iii Based on 2 sets of standards 1 Reference daily intakes RDls vitamins and minerals 2 Daily reference values DRVs energy producing nutrients cholesterol sodium potassium iv Based on 2000 calorie diet 4 Food label claims a Nutrient content claim i Closely regulated by FDA ii Claims comparing food to other foods iii Calorie free low calorie reduced or fewer calories light fat free low fat reduced or less fat lean 1 In order to use these terms you must meet certain requirements by FDA b Health claim i Closely regulated by FDA ii Allow foods to bear certain science baked claims about disease prevention in their labeling without being regulated as drugs iii Permitted claims must have true scienti c agreement iv Claims must use quotmightquot or may quali er in statement v Health claim requirements 1 Must be a good source at least 10 of DV of at least one nutrient 2 Cannot contain more than 13 g of fat 4 g of saturated fat 60 mg of cholesterol and 480 mg of sodium 3 Product meet criteria speci c to health claim c Structurefunction claim i Not FDA approved ii Ex helps build strong bones and teeth helps maintain a healthy heart promotes digestive health d Frontof package claims i Nutrient speci c shows nutritional values large on the front ii Summary indicator has logos or points to help summarize nutritional content iii Food group information symbol for content in food whole grain iv Products can have these if they don t it doesn t mean they aren t healthy e Dietary guidelines for Americans i Identi es key recommendations in categories 1 Balance calories to manage weight a Obesity prevention i Physical activity ii Improved eating control of calories 2 Foods and food components to reduce a Sodium b Fats saturated trans cholesterol c Solid fats and added sugars d Re ned grains e Alcohol 3 Foods and nutrients to increase Fruits and vegetables Whole grain Fat free or low fat dairy Variety of protein and seafood Oils to replace solid fats Foods with more potassium dietary ber calcium vitamin D 4 Building healthy eating patterns a Eating pattern that meets nutrient needs b Food safety 5 Healthy diet the consumption of a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food a Variety i Not always eating the same thing ii Choosing different foods within each food group iii Ensure suf cient nutrients b Balance i Do not over consume any one food group ii Eat foods from ve major food groups c Moderation i Moderate don t eliminate ii Control portion size iii No quotgood foodsquot or quotbad foodsquot rhme cm 6 Myplate a Fruits i Eat a variety of fruit ii Fresh frozen canned or dried iii Decrease fruitjuices Vegetables i More dark green veggies broccoli spinach leafy greens ii More orange veggies carrots sweet potatoes iii More dry beans and peas Grains i Half of grains whole grains Protein i Low fat or lean meats and poultry ii Bake broil or grill iii More sh beans peas nuts and seeds Dairy i Fat free milk and yogurt ii If you can t consume milk drink lactose free or other calcium and vitamin D products Fats i Make most vegetable oils ii Limit solid fats iii Decrease saturated fat trans fat and sodium iv Choose foods and beverages low in sugars
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