Chapter 3: Food Supply
Chapter 3: Food Supply HUMNNTR 2310 - 0010
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Popular in Human Development
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Gonzalez on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HUMNNTR 2310 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Irene Hatsu in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Nutrition in Human Development at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 3 Food Supply Victoria Gonzalez 1 Food security access by all people at all times to enough food for an active healthy life style a Access consistent b Food safe adequate nutritious and acceptable c Access without i Resorting to emergency food programs food stamps ii Scavenging iii Stealing 2 Food insecurity not being able to achieve food security a Hunger discomfort weakness illness or pain caused by lack of food 3 State of global food insecurity a 707 million people were food insecure in 2013 i Up by 3 million from 2012 ii Projected to increase to 868 million by 2023 23 increase b About 870 million people undernourished 125 of population c 2 billion people suffer from micronutrient de ciencies i Hidden hunger d Food is produced in western world and then are shipped to developing countries so the prices skyrocket e Families depend on weather to have food 4 Food insecurity and malnutrition in the developing world a Undernutrition i Children are most affected ii Lack of energy producing nutrients iii Micronutrients 1 Vitamin A blindness and immunity 2 Iron anemia 3 Folate 4 Zinc stunting 5 Iodine brain development iv Children are underweight stunted and have infectious diseases b Women affected by social and cultural norms men are rst to eat and women are last i Poor nutrition affects pregnancy and breastfed infants c Overweight in rural areas more money i Nutrition transition developing countries become westernized and their diets contain more meat sugar diary fats processed foods and alcohol and less whole grains vegetables and fruits 1 One section of population is undernourished the other section is overweight can t describe the population as a whole 5 Food insecurity in the US a b C Food insecure households 140 i Low food security households 84 ii Very low food security 56 iii Ohio and other states in the south are above 14 1 Food insecurity rate in Ohio 169 2 Insecurity rate in Franklin County 179 Insecure women children older adults ethnic minorities inner city rural dwellers farmers homeless Consequences i Decline in physical and mental health 1 Increased depression ii Growth slows or ceases iii Muscle and fat wasting iv Immune system weakens v Increased death rate 6 Programs to increase food security in the US a 0quot DPP f Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program SNAP i Used to be food stamps Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children WIC National School Lunch Program School Breakfast Program Child and Adult Care Food Program Programs for seniors 7 Genetically Modi ed GM Foods a b Makes food more available for consumers Recombinant DNA technology i Plant crops ii Cloned animals not approved for consumption c Top genetically modi ed foods d i Corn soybeans cotton sugar canola beets wheat dcepapaya Biotechnology in GMOs i Uses 1 Pest and weed control 2 Disease prevention in plants 3 Increased crop yields 4 Increase nutrient content 5 Recombinant bovine growth hormone rBGH ii Largest producers of GM foods 1 US Brazil Argentina Canada India e Regulation and safety of GM foods i 6070 of processed foods in the grocery store have GM ingredients ii US government says it is safe to consume these 1 2 3 FDA safe for humans and animals to consume USDA crops are safe to grow EPA pesticides introduce into foods are safe for consumption and the environment iii Europeans say it might be safe but it is restricted 1 Think risk to health outweighs bene ts f Food preservation and processing i Extends shelf life of food 1 Spoilage by microorganisms and enzymes is slowed down ii Permits availability of food year round iii Ex smoking fermentation pickling freezing etc iv Food irradiation 1 2 3 Radiant energy to extend shelf life and control growth of pathogens FDA and AAP irradiated foods are safe for consumption Irradiated food labeled with radura and statement about irradiation treatment a Radura international symbol indicating that food has been irradiated b Dry spices g Food additives i Intentional vs incidental 1 Intentional additives purposely added to achieve a goal longer shelf life nutritional value more appealing colour etc Incidental additives unintentionally become a part of the food through cultivation processing packaging or storage ii Synthetic vs natural Uses 1 Improve freshness and safety 2 Enhance or maintain nutritional value 3 Enhance or maintain colour and avour 4 Contribute to functional characteristics a Ex texture acidity iv Regulation and safety 1 Regulation by FDA a Food manufacturers prove safety 2 Priorsanctioned substances a Sodium and potassium nitrates 3 GRAS list recognized as safe a Vanilla salt sugar etc b Review can lead to deletion of additives on list v Concerns with food additives 1 Longterm safety a Aspartame arti cial sweetener b Sodium nitritesnitrates carcinogen c Arti cial colours 2 Adverse symptoms in sensitive individuals 3 Natural foods a Free of food colours and synthetic substances 8 Foodborne illness a Foodborne pathogens yearly cause about i 478 million illnesses in US ii 127000 hospitalizations in US iii 3000 deaths in US iv 2 million deaths worldwide b At risk individuals i Those with weakened immune systems cancer HIV ii Pregnant and lactating women iii Infants and small children iv The elderly c Contamination i Can occur during Production Processing Distribution center Transportation Restaurant or retail Preparation ii What causes contamination 1 Microbial pathogens viruses and bacteria 2 Contamination by feces a Diaper changing and then food preparation b Poor water sanitation in developing countnes 3 Contamination by an infected individual a Open cut with pathogens transferred during cooking b Coughing and sneezing in food 4 Crosscontamination mwewwe a Cutting board used for vegetables and raw chicken iii Bacteria 1 Temperature a In cold temperatures bacteria will stop dividing but will not die b In hot temperatures bacteria will die i But endospores will not die c Danger zone 41 to 135 F room temperature too d Exception isteria will grow in cold temperatures too iv Viruses 1 Reproduction only occurs inside body cells 2 Sanitation is key 3 Common viruses a Norovirus common on cruises and restaurants b Hepatitis A virus when people infected touch uncooked food i Can stay in body for a long time v Parasites 1 Live inon host organism 2 Foodborne parasites are mainly protozoa and helminthes d Prions and toxins i Prions proteins 1 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE aka quotmad cow diseasequot 2 Fatal brain disease in humans a Variant CreutzfeldtJakob disease vCJD ii Toxins 1 A atoxin on peanuts 2 Ergot grows on rye causes hallucinations 3 Solanine on potatoes can cause paralysis iii Mold fungi 1 Some algae ingested by sh 2 Plants can produce natural toxins 9 Water safety a Publiccity water is regulated by the EPA b Bottled water is regulated by the FDA c Threats to water safety i Agricultural runoff ii Inappropriate disposal of chemicals and municipal solid waste iii Inadequate treatment of human wastes iv Pollution from boats 10 Preventing food and waterborne illness Select and purchase foods carefully Avoid unsafe food and water Practice good personal hygiene Keep a clean kitchen Handle food safely Keep foods out of the danger temperature zone and cook foods appropriately 11 Environmental contaminants in foods a Common environmental contaminants include i Heavy metals 1 Lead paint plumbing and herbal remedies a Damages organs CNS b Absorbed more when iron de cient 2 Mercury ii Industrial chemicals 1 Dioxins a Byproduct of industrial processes b Exposure dioxin contaminated food and inhalation of contaminated air c Accumulate in animal fat and sh d Cause liver and nerve damage e EPA restricts use of sh from waterways 2 Polychlorinated biphenyls 3 Mercury a At risk children pregnancy and lactation b Avoid and limit certain types of sh i Controversial because sh is a good source of omega 3 fatty acids rhme cm 4 PCBs a Were used in industrial processes b No longer produced but doesn t degrade quickly long halflife c Primarily food source freshwater sh from contaminated waterways iii Agricultural chemicals 1 Pesticides a Used to increase crop yield b Synthetic pesticides are banned because they have long halflives c Biopesticides are used now d Problems i Resistance occurs and pesticides must be stronger and stronger ii Drift through waterways or wind e Regulation and exposure i EPA FDA and USDA all regulate pesticides ii Minimizing exposure 1 2 3 4 2 Antibiotics a b c Infants and children are most susceptible Washing and peeling all produce Trimming away fat on meats Eat certi ed organic foods not 100 pesticide free Used to promote growth in animals and preventtreat disease Concern with antibiotic resistant bacteria Not used on organically produced animals