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Multicultural Women in the US 03/01

by: Kay Patel

Multicultural Women in the US 03/01 WMST 1110

Marketplace > University of Georgia > WMST 1110 > Multicultural Women in the US 03 01
Kay Patel

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Covers becoming entreprenuers
Multicultural Women in the US
Nichole Ray
Class Notes
WMST 03/01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kay Patel on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to WMST 1110 at University of Georgia taught by Nichole Ray in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.


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Date Created: 03/17/16
03/01 Becoming entrepreneurs  Purpose: Harvey uses the concept of intersectionality to black women’s entrepreneurial  efforts, addressing how race, class, and gender intersect to inform working class black  women hair salon owners  Finding:  RCG influence both the process of becoming salon owners and the relationship of the  owners and the stylists  Study about entrepreneurship, not hair  Qualitative  These women are daughters of the social justice leaders from the 60s and the 70s  Contextual background:  Social and legal gains of the 1960s positively impacted black women’s occupational  opportunities   Constraints:  Hostile workplace culture  The glass ceiling  Institutional and individual discrimination  Work options for black working class women tend to be low paying jobs with  little security or benefits  History of black women and hair industry  Madame CJ Walker: first self­made female millionaire  Established her fortune by marketing hair products for black women  Employed other black women as sales associates  The intersection of race and gender often mean t that black women were excluded from most jobs  Black women in the hair industry provided a service to groups with whom elites  were loath to interact—kept their business in their family  Gave black women a chance to have a career  Research findings 1:  Becoming an entrepreneur  Allows women to balance work and family (making their own hours)  Effects of gendered norms: desire to “make women beautiful”  “The best part of this work is fixing people up, making them look nice; they  smile, say thank you; it makes me feel good.”  Interesting tidbit: gender ideology demands that women should be attractive,  but the overlapping racial message often insist that black women do not meet  beauty ideals. Interestingly the social significance attached to women’s hair  exposes this contradiction   Binary system: beautiful vs non­beautiful  Skirts glass ceiling effect  Financial stability and independence  Research findings 2:  Relationship between owners and stylists they hire  Ideology of help and support: “lifting as we climb”  Stems from a sense of racial and gender solidarity—also reflects the reaching  across class lines to aid other black women in becoming successful  Interestingly, “owners did not seek to uplift less fortunate black women,  instead, their sense of gender/racial solidarity compelled them to help the  black women from their same class  Challenges:  Access to start­up capital i.e. dealing with racial discrimination with business  loans  Expanding networks to ensure that businesses is profitable  Rcg is useful in examining the social process of black women’s  entrepreneurship The culture of black femininity  Studies show that black girls are raised to be assertive and independent with relatively  high self­esteem and work oriented aspirations  Researchers studied 3 age cohorts and found that the culture of black femininity has  changed over time and the black women’s socialization towards voice and power can be  productive in relation to securing an education  A just society is dependent upon schools and educators learning to build upon rather than  attempt to suppress “the socially productive nature of black femininity  “These loud black girls”  S. Fordham study  Ethnography of an African American teen girl found that her expression of “voice”  marginalized her in school; it is often the most assertive low­income, minority girls  who leave or are pushed out of school  Culturally­specific ways of raising black girls  Higher self­esteem  Less concerned with romance and marriage  Greater focus on education, work, and being independent Findings  Their positive attitude and aspirations towards higher education and persistence against  obstacles were fostered by their socialization to become independent of men  They were able to resist efforts to circumscribe their educational experiences by invoking their voice and power  All cohorts had the experience of restrictions placed on their bodies (i.e.: preference for  light skin, long hair, strict tiles about dating etc…)  


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