Multicultural Women in the US 03/01
Multicultural Women in the US 03/01 WMST 1110
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kay Patel on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to WMST 1110 at University of Georgia taught by Nichole Ray in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
03/01 Becoming entrepreneurs Purpose: Harvey uses the concept of intersectionality to black women’s entrepreneurial efforts, addressing how race, class, and gender intersect to inform working class black women hair salon owners Finding: RCG influence both the process of becoming salon owners and the relationship of the owners and the stylists Study about entrepreneurship, not hair Qualitative These women are daughters of the social justice leaders from the 60s and the 70s Contextual background: Social and legal gains of the 1960s positively impacted black women’s occupational opportunities Constraints: Hostile workplace culture The glass ceiling Institutional and individual discrimination Work options for black working class women tend to be low paying jobs with little security or benefits History of black women and hair industry Madame CJ Walker: first selfmade female millionaire Established her fortune by marketing hair products for black women Employed other black women as sales associates The intersection of race and gender often mean t that black women were excluded from most jobs Black women in the hair industry provided a service to groups with whom elites were loath to interact—kept their business in their family Gave black women a chance to have a career Research findings 1: Becoming an entrepreneur Allows women to balance work and family (making their own hours) Effects of gendered norms: desire to “make women beautiful” “The best part of this work is fixing people up, making them look nice; they smile, say thank you; it makes me feel good.” Interesting tidbit: gender ideology demands that women should be attractive, but the overlapping racial message often insist that black women do not meet beauty ideals. Interestingly the social significance attached to women’s hair exposes this contradiction Binary system: beautiful vs nonbeautiful Skirts glass ceiling effect Financial stability and independence Research findings 2: Relationship between owners and stylists they hire Ideology of help and support: “lifting as we climb” Stems from a sense of racial and gender solidarity—also reflects the reaching across class lines to aid other black women in becoming successful Interestingly, “owners did not seek to uplift less fortunate black women, instead, their sense of gender/racial solidarity compelled them to help the black women from their same class Challenges: Access to startup capital i.e. dealing with racial discrimination with business loans Expanding networks to ensure that businesses is profitable Rcg is useful in examining the social process of black women’s entrepreneurship The culture of black femininity Studies show that black girls are raised to be assertive and independent with relatively high selfesteem and work oriented aspirations Researchers studied 3 age cohorts and found that the culture of black femininity has changed over time and the black women’s socialization towards voice and power can be productive in relation to securing an education A just society is dependent upon schools and educators learning to build upon rather than attempt to suppress “the socially productive nature of black femininity “These loud black girls” S. Fordham study Ethnography of an African American teen girl found that her expression of “voice” marginalized her in school; it is often the most assertive lowincome, minority girls who leave or are pushed out of school Culturallyspecific ways of raising black girls Higher selfesteem Less concerned with romance and marriage Greater focus on education, work, and being independent Findings Their positive attitude and aspirations towards higher education and persistence against obstacles were fostered by their socialization to become independent of men They were able to resist efforts to circumscribe their educational experiences by invoking their voice and power All cohorts had the experience of restrictions placed on their bodies (i.e.: preference for light skin, long hair, strict tiles about dating etc…)
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