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by: Brittany Ballog

ExamOneStudyGuide.pdf CEP 470

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Psychlogy > CEP 470 > ExamOneStudyGuide pdf
Brittany Ballog
GPA 3.0
Disability in a Diverse Society
Erica Wondolowski

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exam one study guide
Disability in a Diverse Society
Erica Wondolowski
Class Notes
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CEP 470 at Michigan State University taught by Erica Wondolowski in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Disability in a Diverse Society in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Exam One Study Guide PERSON FIRST LANGUAGE What is PersonFirst Language Peoplefirst language PFL is a way of speaking and referring to people with disabilities that respects them as human beings rather than dehumanizes them 0 It emphasizes the person first and their disability second It also emphasizes the use of language that is objective rather than words that are subjective or have pejorative connotations Why is PFL Important Person First Language 0 A person who is blind A person who uses a wheelchair A person with cerebral palsy Not a person in a wheelchair or wheelchair bound Not af icted with suffers from victim of or crippled by PFL And Employment What to Focus On Do not focus on a disability unless it is crucial to a story Focus on the issues that affect the quality of life of people with disabilities accessible transportation or housing employment Tear jerking story doesn t always show a positive and competent image Avoid terms such handicapable di erentlyabled special and challenged They come off as cutesy and trivializing and reinforce the idea that people cannot deal honestly with their disabilities 0 Disability is a natural part of the human condition A person s disability is a part of their life but it needn t be the predominant thing Language Can Be Empowering When we adopt new ways of thinking and talking about people with disabilities we39ll not only exert a positive in uence on their lives but on our society as a whole We39ve seen the power of language on other groups it is unacceptable to use ethnic slurs and other harmful descriptors Kathie Snow INTRODUCTION TO DISABILITY What is Disability Dictionarycom 0 lack of adequate power strength or physical or mental ability incapacity 0 a physical or mental handicap especially one that prevents a person from living a full normal life or from holding a gainful job anything that disables or puts one at a disadvantage the state or condition of being disabled legal incapacity legal disqualification 0 disability insurance Categories of Disabilities 0 Physical Disabilities Visual Hearing Dual Sensory Loss Mobility Health Disorders 0 Intellectual Disabilities OOO 0 Mental Retardation 0 Cognitive Disabilites 0 Learning disabilities 0 Psychiatric Disabilities 0 Mental illness autism chemical amp substance abuse Why categorize disability What are potential problems of categorizing disability Disability as a Dichotomy or a Continuum People with disabilities are a group only recently entering everyday civic life Important Point 0 Until the second half of the 20th century it was rare to find the simple recognition that apart from their specific impairment disabled people have the same abilities needs and interests as the mainstream population Greek and Roman Bras 4 Century BC Emphasis on physical perfection 0 Unity of body and soul meant blemish of one blemish of the other Cause demons 0 Treatment Elimination infanticide 0 Aristotle recommended that there should be a law quotto prevent rearing of deformed children 0 Roman infants had no rights until 10 days old 0 Treatment depended on class Occupation fool or jester 0 Rome 0 Children with a deformity could be legally exterminated Treatment of mental illness depended upon social class 0 Humane treatment if you were from an upper class 0 Otherwise put to death chained ogged starved Middle Ages 17th Century By 16th Century cause of devils being replaced by sickness Result asylums rather than monasteries or prisons Objects of Study Colonial America Perception of Disability Burden Thirteen Colonies excluded settlers who could not demonstrate an ability to support themselves 0 Immigration of persons with disabilities forbidden 1752 the 1st general hospital established by the Quakers and Ben Franklin in Philadelphia 0 Mental Illness 0 Socioeconomic status of one s family 0 Whether the person s behavior was nonviolent or violent 19th Century America Governmental role Laissez Faire Social Darwinism v Social Gospel Movement 0 American Charity Organization Movement 0 Sir Francis Galton s Eugenie Movement 0 Beginning of Compulsory Education amp Vocational Education 0 Limited medical knowledge amp resources Eugenics A popular belief at this time was that mental retardation and mental illness were completely genetic and were the cause of most if not all social ills poverty drunkenness prostitution crime and violence The response was to segregate or sterilize all of these people so that they could not reproduce their quotevil habitsquot and quotdestroy the gene pool Christianity Movement results in mixed results 0 Improving treatment and rejecting infanticide 0 Evolution of a Moral Model Institutions 0 Medical Viewpoint Niels Erk BankMikkelsen the director of the Danish national services for mental retardation Advancements in 20th Century America Workers Compensation Laws Impact of WWI amp WWII Golden Era of Rehabilitation l950l970 s Consumer Movement in the 1970 s 0 Independent Living amp Disability Rights Movement began in the early 70 s Dramatic increases in Medical Knowledge amp Technology Rehab Act of l973Section 504 ADA of 1990 Objects of Pity Summary Persons with disabilities have long been treated as being less than human Current movements in society are reshaping the perception of disability PERSONAL REACTIONS TO DISABLEMENT Myth About Personal Reactions If PWDs were offered a way to eliminate the disability he or she would enthusiastically accept it The person who has the disability almost invariably sees his or her disability as less troublesome than outsiders presume it to be Vash and Crewe 2004 p 14 Most are able to recognize both gains and losses from disability The prevailing message in disability scholarship is that life with disability is not tragic Rather the tragedy is the failure of social institutions to help people with physical impairments lead productive lives Oullette 2011 p 60 Factors Affecting Reaction to Disablement 1 Those emanating from the disability itself 2 Those linked to the person who becomes disabled 3 Those present in the person s immediate environment 4 Those that are part of the larger cultural context Time of Onset Congenital vs Acquired Deaf at birth vs deaf later in life Congenital means to have been born with something or to have something since birth Acquired means that along the way it was picked up In this case along the lifespan Affects Learning in Deafness and Blindness Stages of Life Alternate Experience 0 Type of Onset Brush with death Sudden acute vs Prolonged insidious Selfinduced vs Otherinduced Functions Impaired Different disabilities lead to different impairments Feelings of attractiveness Severity of Disability Number of disabilities an individual experiences 0 Number of areas in functioning that are affected 0 Amount and type of treatment necessary Visibility of Disability Stability of the Disability Course of Disability Direction stable progressive episodic Pace of Movement Degree of Predictability Goals of Chronic Disabilities Symptom Control Prevention of secondary disabilities or complications Maintaining the highest quality of life possible Pain 0 The Person Sex Activities Affected Interests Values Goals Remaining Resources PersonalityPremorbid coping skills Problem Solving and Decision Making Abilities Spiritual and Philosophical Base Previous experience with disability Summary Quality of life is acknowledged as a multifaceted and holistic approach to appraising one39s life based upon several independent domains such as physical psychological social economic and spiritual and the nature by which they interact Frisch 1999 Hampton amp QinHillard 2004 Lau amp McKenna 2002 Livneh 2001 Livneh Lott amp Antonak 2004 McDaniel amp Bach 1994 Pitkanen Hatonen Kuosmanen amp Valimaki 2009 Social interactions and interpersonal relationships are integral components of an individual39s overall quality of life assessment and should remain a goal when seeking to rehabilitate an individual SOCIETAL REACTIONS TO DISABLEMENT Imposed by 1 The humanmade parts of the physical environment ie stairs curbs height of various structures etc 2 Social customs values attitudes and expectations ie beliefs about worth Disability Language Disability Defined in terms of individual functioning Relatively unchanging Handicap Refers to the interference experienced by a person with a disability in a restrictive environment Varies greatly depending on what the person is trying to do and what opportunities the environment offers The terminology applied to any disadvantaged group will keep changing until the stigma applied to the group is removed and they become a truly equal part of society p 27 Physical Environment In 1968 the Architectural Barriers Act ABA issued standards applying to facilities designed built altered or leased with certain federal funds ie post offices social security offices national parks public housing and mass transit systems Standards include those applying to 1 application and administration 2 new construction andor alterations additions and leases and 3 building materials and spacing amongst others But Physical Barriers are Only a PART of the Problem Salience of Disability PWOD assume disability is the central identity and selfdefinition PWODs have been shown to ascribe more importance and limitations to PWDs than actually exist Overgeneralizations Spread Widespread discounting and underrating of all abilities of the individual with a disability Tiny Tim syndrome disability automatically results in sweet and saintly personality Twisted body twisted soul Hierarchy of Stigma Disability Type 1 Physical Disability Least Stigma Sensory mobility health disorders 2 Cognitive Disability TBI learning disabilities 3 Intellectual Disability Down Syndrome Autism 4 Psychiatric Disability Most Stigma Mental Illness Substance Abuse Hierarchy of Stigma Type of Onset Noble and honorable endeavors Least Stigma Congenital Acquired Acquired by Fault Most Stigma 0 Implications of Hierarchy Daytoday treatment of PWDs differs based on category of disability Cultural Responses to Disability Why so much Prejudice amp Discrimination The Economic Threat The Safety Threat Ambiguity l Intense aversion or hostility 2 Strong sympathy and compassion Excessive Value Placed on Certain Qualities 1 Another Source Fear of Acquiring a Disability We like to believe we totally control both our destinies and our bodies and that we can overcome anything 1 I could become like that 2 Collective neurosis larger groups fear of disability Reality Most of us are Temporarily AbleBodied Relationships with PWDs Attitudinal Barriers 1 Over generalizing What are they like 2 What values are venerated by our culture Overvaluation of Rational Intellect Overvaluation of Physique Undervaluation of Spirituality Inferred Emotional Consequence of the Disability 1 PWODs often assume disability is worse thing that ever happened to the PWD Unending devastating personal tragedy 2 Requirement for Mourning Moral Accountability for Managing the Disability Rules amp Expectations of PWDs 1 Who makes the rules 0 PWODs 2 What are some of these rules 0 PWDs must Show courage and optimism Demonstrate desire and motivation to recover Manage disability actively and independently Make others comfortable with their disability Communicate high level of comfort with disability Three Types of Justice 1 Everybody receives the same 0 Equal opportunity unequal outcomes 2 Everybody receives what they earn Survival of the fittest 3 Everybody receives what they need 0 Most complex strives for more equal outcomes MODELS OF DISABILITY Models of Disability MoralReligious Model Biomedical Model 0 Disease Model Functional Model 0 Economic Model Sociopolitical Model Minority Group Model MoralReligious Model Due to poor morals Due to an angry gGods Biomedical Model Disability pathology disorder dysfunction or deformity located in the individual 0 Model of Disability with the longest history Objective clear cut standardized Use of experts with high levels of knowledge and skill Two dimensions in this model Normal and Pathological Two outcomes in this model Death or cure Functional Model Disability Role Failure 0 Functions of an individual in uence definition of disability Problem is shared between environment and individual Strong focus on work as only function considered Most models only include work and activities of daily living ADLs Again Industrialization and the shift to an information economy changes the perception of functional disability Surplus populations Sociopolitical Model Disability is not the problem in this model Individual s physical and social environment can cause define or exaggerate disability 0 Problem is in the environment PSYCHIATRIC DISABILITY History and Treatment of Mental Illness Early views of MI 0 Rise of Asylums Call for Higher Quality Care Degrading Care Eugenics Movement 0 Fall of the Asylums 400 BC Hippocrates Mental illness is result of disturbed physiology and should be treated as a medical illness Middle Ages 0 In Europe mentally ill mostly allowed freedom as long as not dangerous In some places however treated as witches as inhabited by demons Some religious orders care for mentally ill First European facility specifically for people with mental illness established in Valencia Spain in 1407 Europeans begin to isolate mentally ill putting them with vagrants and delinquents Persons seen as insane begin to be treated inhumanely chained to walls or kept in dungeons Late 1700 s Concern about treatment of mentally ill grows leads to occasional reforms Phillippe Pinel takes over the Bicetre insane asylum and removes patients from dungeons 16th Century forward Institutions run by physicians for the wealthy Early views on Mental Illness 0 Family and community care was replaced by state care and the birth of the mental hospital 0 Dorothea Dix 18021887 in the US crusaded for establishment of statesupported mental asylums First state hospitals built in Pennsylvania and New Jersey Dorothea Dix discovers that mentally ill people in Massachusetts are jailed with criminals denied clothing left in unlit unheated windowless rooms Establishes 32 state hospitals as asylums for the mentally ill 19th Century Principles of Moral Treatment 0 Era of Therapeutic Optimism O Phillipe Pinal 17451826 0 Treated the poor 0 In uenced by others of this time who believed insanity is a disease to be treated by science 0 Director of an asylum for women in Paris 0 William Tuke 17321822 0 abolished use of restraints and physical punishment 0 Respect support decent food exercise medical treatment and religious instruction 0 Benjamin Rush 17451813 0 Founding Father 0 Treated the poor 0 Advocate of preventive medicine simple diagnosis and treatment 0 The insane had the right to be treated with respect 0 Improved care for Children 0 Private schools opened in Great Britain 0 Special Education began 0 Education and training offered 0 Before the middle of the 19th Century children with special needs were either sent to work houses or homeless NYT reporter Nelly Bly gets self admitted to Blackwell s Island and writes expose on conditions there resulting in more funding 0 By the end of the 19th Century however growing issues developed between community and state run facilities 0 Double up of services Lack of clear regulations on division of responsibility Patient fees set by state legislators were insufficient slow and delinquent resulting in significant cash ow problems 0 Community facilities rapidly began to send patients to state run institutions Dementia redefined and the elderly sent to state mental institutions Overcrowding of Institutions 0 High cost of facility maintenance Most patients had chronic untreatable conditions 0 Physicians and Psychiatrists developed a pessimistic view 0 Physician directors replaced by managers political appointees Moral View became dominant No new treatment methods developed The Eugenics Movement Based on Darwin s natural selection theory Survival of the fittest Society and the human gene pool had to be improved 0 Anyone with a disability was a threat to human survival 0 People with any disability had to be kept separate from rest of society 0 People with disabilities had no use to society were burdens on the state 0 The Eugenics Movement Only defected parents could have defected children Mass sterilization began Countries around the world including the US instated mandatory sterilization laws and prohibitions that people with disabilities could marry The idea of mass extermination began to develop Treatment of Mental Illness 20th Century Malaria injections Insulin injections 0 Electric shock 1937 0 The Prefrontal Lobotomy the miracle cure Egas Moniz 1936 Won the Nobel Prize in 1949 Electroshock Treatment Who Could Benefit from the Lobotomy According to a New York Times article from 1937 people with the following symptoms would benefit from a lobotomy quotTension apprehension anxiety depression insomnia suicidal ideas delusions hallucinations crying spells melancholia obsessions panic states disorientation psychalgesia pains of psychic origin nervous indigestion and hysterical paralysisquot Personal Stories of Lobotomies After WWII physicians began experimenting on patients with drug compounds The revolution of antipsychotics The development of Thorazine in 1954 0 Development of Lithium in Melbourne Treatment of Mental Illness 20th Century Transinstitutionalization So what happened 0 No planning and too quick of a push of hospital discharges 0 Community facilities could not develop quick or adequately enough and little training I Little provision of medical psychiatric care social services housing income maintenance or appropriate employment vocational or social rehabilitation I Fragmented services where people with mental illness often have cognitive deficits that hinder them from being able to move through the mazes Significant lack in funding Lack of cooperation and communication between hospitals and agencies and government 0 No testing that community care is better and more cost effective 0 Community stigma Lacking support 0 Treatment of Mental Illness Today Strong focus on medications lacking focus on therapy 0 Introduction of Prozac in 1992 the miracle drug Lacking community resources Stretched budgets Waiting lists for services Prisons have become the new institutions Emerging view points that individuals with mental illness can work and have the right to adequate and meaningful employment 0 Emerging support for access to higher education Preventing illness from occurring better than having to treat illness after onset Prevention Definition Primary 0 prevention before disease occurs Secondary O prevention recurrences or exacerbation of disease already diagnosed Tertiary 0 reduction in amount of disability caused by disease to achieve highest level of function Treatment Very few adults with dX mental disorder receive mh services Why Barriers Stigma Therapies in research don t always work in practice Treatment Barriers 0 Demographic African American Hispanic and poor women less likely seek tX 0 Patient attitude No time fear hospitalization can do it on own no one can help stigma 0 Financial 0 Cost tx most prevalent reason 0 Organizational Fragmentation services and lack of availability LAWS AND LEGISLATION WWI 19141918 0 WI impacted rehabilitation a factor in extending vocational education to PWD many with physical disabilities medical improvement leading to many surviving 0 A National Defense Act was passed in 1916 to help men in uniform prepare for civilian life The Soldier Rehabilitation Act 1918 First Federal program for vocational rehabilitation of veterans with disabilities This was a breakthrough for PWDs returning from war Vocational rehabilitation was an unknown entity medical care for minor condition was available During congressional hearing on this Bill a civilian vocational rehabilitation provision was considered The Bill was opposed The bill did not pass the first time but passed about 23 more years SmithFess Act 1920 Fund used to provide vocational guidance vocational education occupational adjustment and placement services The Act did not provide physical restoration services Many states did not enact legislation The 1930s 0 1921 Franklin D Roosevelt contracts polio 0 As President he believed in government responsibilities for the economy and welfare of the people including helping the poor during hard times But did not further cause of PWD even though he had a disability his focus was on the general population and not the few 1935 Permanence of VR became a reality with the passage of the 1935 Social Security Act 0 first permanent source of federal funding related to vocational issues the VA program became a permanent one For Congress vocational rehabilitation of PWD was a matter of social justice and not to be dependent on periodic test of whether it was deserved 0 Funding was still small during this time Randolph Sheppard Act 1936 1 The only significant program expansion for rehabilitation between 1920 and WW11after the passage of SmithFess Act of 1920 Permitted those with visual impairments to operate vending machines in federal properties 2 A survey was to be done in order to identify other types of work that could benefit those with visual impairments 3 Encouraged the development and expansion of a stable market for products made by those with visual impairments 1943 LaFolletteBarden Act Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendments adds physical rehabilitation to vocational rehabilitation program objectives and provides funding Federal policies also perpetuated separate rehabilitation programs for civilians and veterans despite FDR s efforts during World War II to introduce a unified system 0 1946 HillBurton Hospital Survey and Construction Act authorizes federal grants to states for hospital construction including rehabilitation hospitals 1948 Disabled students program at University of Illinois at Galesburg established directed by Timothy Nugent Program later transfers to University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign Becomes model for disabled student services in higher education 1950 Barrierfree movement launched by disabled World War II veterans other people with disabilities and disability advocates 1950 Social Security Amendments of 1950 authorizes funding for state programs of Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled APTD Provided financial assistance to impoverished people with disabilities under strict eligibility criteria 0 1953 InHome Support Services program established in Los Angeles County California to provide personal assistance services to adults with postpolio disabilities as an alternative to permanent costly institutionalization Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendment of 1954 0 Eisenhower was instrumental greatly championed the rehabilitation movements made a case to help meet the need of PWD 0 The result was the Vocational Rehabilitation Act amendment of 1954 increase in federal funding Expansion of services to individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and mental illness 0 Social Security Act Amendment 19561972 0 1956 Amendment authorize social security disability allowance for individuals with disabilities 0 it provided disability income allowance for permanently disabled injured person who is 50 or over and could not return to competitive employment Allowance usually enough to meet basic needs Late 1950 s to Early 1960 s 1958 Social Security Amendments of 1958 US Congress extends Social Security Disability Insurance benefits to dependents of workers with disabilities 1960 Social Security Amendments of 1960 US Congress removes provision limiting Social Security Disability Insurance benefits to workers over age 50 Makes SSDI available to workers who acquire disabilities at younger age The Civil Right Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination in hiring terminating compensating etc on the basis of race color religion gender national origin created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC 1965 Social Security Allowance SSA Amendment 0 1A 1965 Amendment included vocational rehabilitation it emphasize that i cash benefits were not the only objectives of the disability insurance program ii another object was to rehabilitate as many as possible applicants for SS disability insurance SSDI B To meet these objectives SSDI funds cover rehabilitation cost only for selected disability beneficiaries through state rehabilitation agency services C The goal was cut cost i Beneficiaries with disabilities who could benefit from competitive employment were the only ones benefiting from the fund and those whose rehabilitation cost would not surpass the cost of maintaining the individual on SSDI indefinitely 1968Architectural Barriers Act PL 90480 adopted by U S Congress on August 12 Requires that most buildings and facilities designed built altered or leased with federal funds be accessible to people with disabilities Justified as promoting vocational rehabilitation because architectural barriers are considered the greatest obstacle to employment But this act will come to be regarded as the first federal law mandating disability rights 1969 Access symbol the line drawing of a wheelchair rider which will become the ubiquitous sign of physical accessibility 1972 Amendment to Social Security Act 0 Beneficiaries with disabilities were eligible for medical health coverage but waiting period of 29 months after application was enacted the reason was cost to limit eligible population and the budget of Medicare cost in 1978 was 3 billion 1973 Rehabilitation Act Civil Rights Provision Title V 0 Section 501 mandates affirmative action in federal hiring handicapped persons Maintains that employers cannot discriminate against PWD Employers MUST provide reasonable accomodations to qualified applicants who request them Employers cannot ask questions about disability or require medical exam prior to offering PWD a job Section 502 establishes the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board Section 503 obligates private contractors or subcontractors receiving 2500 or more in federal funds to develop affirmative action plans regarding employment of people with disabilities Section 504 prohibits discrimination against otherwise qualified handicapped individuals in federallyfunded programs It is the first legal measure barring discrimination against people with disabilities The regulations and subsequent litigation give rise to a disability rights concepts such as reasonable accommodation reasonable modification and undue burden These terms and concepts will be incorporated into the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Drafting of the 504 regulations drags on for four years It becomes a focal issue and organizing tool for disability rights activism for the first time uniting a range of disability constituencies and organizations in a crossdisability political alliance The 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act Now called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA since 1990 0 Put an end to exclusion of PWD from public schools and the inappropriateness of education some PWD were receiving 0 States receiving federal funds they should identify locate and evaluate all children with disabilities and should provide an integration education 0 Individualized Education Program IEP was to be developed from each child performance yearly goals and short term objects modification in assessment and testing statement of transition etc 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act Pub Law 94142 adopted by U S Congress For first time ensures right of children with disabilities to receive public school education in settings as integrated as possible the least restrictive environment and mandates for each such child an individualized educational program 1976 Higher Education Act of 1972 Amendment adopted by U S Congress authorizes academic support services to university and college students with disabilities 1977 Halderman vs Pennhurst Pennsylvania state court rules against separate but equal educational programs and institutions for children with disabilities declaring they violate constitutional guarantees of equal protection under the law 1979 Public Transportation U S Department of Transportation issues Section 504 implementing regulations 0 Requires mainline public transportation systems to provide access for people with disabilities The Job Training Partnership Act of 1982 joint effort between government and employees 0 they trained youth and unskilled workers for employments 0 51 of independent living centers employees and board of directors must be PWD in 1984 The Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 0 prohibition of discrimination against PWD by air carriers ADAPT American Disabled for Access Public Transit 0 Goal was to get lifts on all city busses so people with disabilities could use public transportation independently 0 Staged protests to create change Laws Against Discrimination 0 The Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act Of 1984 0 The Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 0 The Fair Housing Act Amendment of 1988 first law to extend the antidiscrimination law for PWD 0 Social Security Act Amendment of 1980 and 0 Rehabilitation Act Amendment of 1986 Social Security Act Amendment of 1980 0 The SSDI goal to rehabilitate as many as possible was not coming to fruition because a small percent realistic prospects for employment 0 small number willing to leave their SSDI and return to work Reasons may be due to having to prove that they cannot work the possibility of loosing benefits if thought they can work the fear of not been able to stay on jobs for long period of time 0 The Social Security Act Amendment of 1980 was in response of these fears Work Incentives were made available though this Act and 1986 1987 and 1990 Shrey et al 1991 0 The work Incentives are 0 A trial work period impairmentrelated work expenses extended period of eligibility continuation of Medical coverage Medicare for PWD who work The ADA of 1990 Signed by George H W Bush July 261990 0 Prohibited against discrimination towards PWD in employment in state and local government services in public accommodation and commercial facilities telecommunication increase access to telecommunication 0 Miscellaneous retaliation and coercion 0 Accessibility historical buildings and facilities federal and state hiring 1992 Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act signed by President Bush 0 stressed independent living services and employment outcome 0 Clients participation in planning and implementing their rehabilitation services 0 emphasis was on client hence clientcentered planning and consumerdriven planning School to Work Opportunity Act of 1994 transition of HS graduate into the work force worktraining while attending school Workforce Investment Act of 1998 Comprehensive vocational and independent living rehabilitation services Focus on both employees and employers training skills for former and trained workers for later improved quality of work Supported employment 0 Client assistance projects Encouraged a joint effect between vocational rehabilitation and federal workforce programs increase clients control of their vocational planning expanded access to services help for those who are underprivileged quality service by qualified professionals clients control of IPE IWRPcoauthor not just signing off as was the case counselors were to facilitate integration Service through entire state system not just state VA programs Interagency agreement with postsecondary education institutions 1999 Ticket to WorkWork Incentive Improvement Act TWWIIA 0 most important piece of legislation since the passage of the ADA 0 increase the participation of PWD in the work force the same way the ADA help in accessibility 0 help in the elimination of barrier work disincentives to work for social security beneficiaries receiving returntowork services without loosing benefits health and monetary entirely 0 the ADA was based on civil rights rather than entitlement the TWIIA bridges the two by combining returntowork services with sustained disability benefits opportunity 0 Incentives rather than a sudden cut in pay a sliding scale will be used getting a job would not result in a review to end benefits reinstating one status is possible without a judicial review 1996 Telecommunications Act of 1996 passed by US Congress Requires that telecommunications services and equipment be accessible WIOA President Barack Obama signed the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act WIOA into law on July 22 2014 WIOA is designed to help job seekers access employment education training and support services to succeed in the labor market and to match employers with the skilled workers they need to compete in the global economy Congress passed the Act by a wide bipartisan majority it is the first legislative reform in 15 years of the public workforce system INDEPENDENT LIVING Independent Living IL A philosophy a way of looking at disability and society and a worldwide movement of people with disabilities who proclaim to work for selfdetermination selfrespect and equal opportunities 0 Philosophy The Independent Living philosophy postulates that people with disabilities are the best experts on their needs and therefore they must take the initiative individually and collectively in designing and promoting better solutions and must organize themselves for political power The Independent Living ideology comprises demedicalization of disability de institutionalization and crossdisability ie inclusion in the IL Movement regardless of diagnoses In the Independent Living philosophy disabled people are primarily seen as citizens and only secondarily as consumers of healthcare rehabilitation or social services As citizens in democratic societies the IL Movement claims persons with disabilities have the same right to participation to the same range of options degree of freedom control and selfdetermination in every day life and life projects that other citizens take for granted Thus IL activists demand the removal of infrastructural institutional and attitudinal barriers and the adoption of the Universal Design principle 0 IL and Services Depending on the individual s disability support services such as assistive technology income supplements or personal assistance are seen as necessary to achieve equal opportunities As emphasized by the IL Movement needs assessment and service delivery must enable users to control their services to freely choose among competing service providers and to live with dignity in the community 0 Independent living is Independent Living means that we demand the same choices and control in our everyday lives that our nondisabled brothers and sisters neighbors and friends take for granted We want to grow up in our families go to the neighborhood school use the same bus as our neighbors work in jobs that are in line with our education and interests and raise families of our own We are profoundly ordinary people sharing the same need to feel included recognized and loved Independent Living does not mean that we want to do everything by ourselves do not need anybody or like to live in isolation Medical Model and IL Proponents of the IL Movement claim preconceived notions and a predominantly medical view of disability contribute to negative attitudes towards people with disabilities portraying them as sick defective and deviant persons as objects of professional intervention as a burden for themselves and their families dependent on other people s charity Brief History With origins in the US civil rights and consumer movements of the late 1960s the Independent Living Movement grew out of the Disability Rights Movement which began in the 1970s The IL Movement works at replacing the special education and rehabilitation experts concepts of integration normalization and rehabilitation with a new paradigm developed by people with disabilities themselves The first Independent Living ideologists and organizers were people with extensive disabilities Center for IL 0 In 1972 the first Center for Independent Living was founded by disability activists led by Ed Roberts in Berkeley California These Centers were created to offer peer support and role modeling and are run and controlled by persons with disabilities According to the IL approach the example of a peer somebody who has been in a similar situation can be more powerful than a nondisabled professional39s interventions in analyzing one s situation in assuming responsibility for one s life and in developing coping strategies Group Support According to the IL Movement with peer support everyone including persons with extensive developmental disabilities can learn to take more initiative and control over their lives 0 For example peer support is used in Independent Living Skills classes where people living with their families or in institutions learn how to run their everyday lives in preparation for living by themselves Services Depending on the public services in the community Centers might assist with housing referral and adaptation personal assistance referral or legal aid Typically Centers work with local and regional governments to improve infrastructure raise awareness about disability issues and lobby for legislation that promotes equal opportunities and prohibits discrimination DISABILITY AND THE FAMILY The Family System Disability disrupts the homeostatic balance of the family unit Change in Schedules Duties Plans Roles Age of Onset Plays Critical Role Why may the family system or individual members may feel the following emotions Guilt Shame Embarrassment Disappointment Sorrow Anger 0 Family Boundaries Disengaged everyone does their own thing paying little attention to one another Enmeshed When the family is so close together they cannot go anywhere alone or without asking permission 0 Marital Stress Marriages Before Disability 0 Disability may materially alter the basis of the partnership both parties made commitments to 0 May strengthen the marriage Usually happens when bonds were strong to begin with 0 Different degree of marriage Intimate 0 Parallel Play Symbiotic Companionship Allison Lapper 1999 Artist Marc Quinn unveils a statue Statue creates an uproar Surprise Dismay Revulsion at the notion that a woman with disabilities was a sexual being raising a child Why 0 Is there a Difference Children amp the Family Can persons with disabilities raise a child 0 At what point can they no longer be a good parent Pressure to NOT have children 0 What if they already had children prior to onset Presumptions about childrearing abilities should have no place in the process because they are unfair barrier to the ability of people with disabilities to found a family 0 Who has the RIGHT to Reproduce Does the lack of disability equate to capable parenting Right to Parenthood Course and Symptoms of Disability 0 Pain 0 Fatigue 0 Expected Death 0 Unhealthy Family Roles Disability becoming a stabilizing in uence 0 Using family member with disability as a scapegoat Protectiveness Often overprotective Family Coping Resources Emotional Intellectual Personality 0 Physical Money Contacts 0 Ability to ask for help SEXUALITY AND DISABILITY Meeting and First Date How can this experience become even more complicated for persons with disabilities Sexuality as a form of pleasure and an expression of love is still not recognized for people with disabilities One of the largest barriers that individuals living with disabilities face regarding their sexuality is societal misconception Misconceptions People with disabilities will experience neither sexuality nor intimate loving relationships Those who marry or to engage in any longterm relationship with people with disabilities as a saint or a loser The onset of a disability the end of all sexuality People with disabilities have been viewed as asexual or as eternal children or they have been viewed as sexually rampant and unable to control sexual impulses Clinician discomfort Fear of encouraging sexual activity Medical View Medical professionals assume disabled people should only see doctors associated with their disability instead of treating the whole person Disabled people are not asked about their sexual history not asked about the need for contraception and are often denied any information concerning sexuality Medical education in human sexuality and sexual historytaking is often missing in both residency and medical school curricula Sexuality and Disabilities People with disabilities are often regarded as asexual denied the right to express themselves sexually or to have a sexual identity Body Image and sexualesteem Sexual activity after the onset of disabilities Emphasis on sexual rights Masculinity amp Femininity Lack of information and sex education People with disabilities should have access to sexual education knowledge about anatomy autonomy and understanding that desire and pleasure are human rights that everyone should have Medical professionals must learn how to talk about sexuality Why are PWD statistically at a far greater risk of being sexually abused 40 of women with disabilities have been assaulted or raped 54 of boys who are deaf have been sexually abused 50 of girls who are deaf have been sexually abused 68 of psychiatric outpatients have been physically or sexually abused 81 of psychiatric inpatients have been physically or sexually abused Consider This Other studies suggest 68 of girls with developmental disabilities and 30 of boys with developmental disabilities will be sexually abused before their eighteenth birthday According to research 15000 to 19000 people with developmental disabilities are raped each year in the US Ashley X And Mrs Z EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT Setting the Stage 0 On average workingage people with disabilities have a lower level of educational attainment are poorer and far less likely to be employed than adults without disabilities Facts 0 Young adults with disabilities are three times more likely to live in poverty as adults than peers without disabilities 0 Often the last hired and first fired Education 0 Separate is inherently unequal 0 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA PWDs to be educated in the least restrictive environment 0 Mainstreaming is not without its controversy 0 Does the cost of providing equal education to extremely disabled children exceed the value of inclusion 0 Some believe the quality of education for all suffers Special Education Terms 0 IEP Individualized Education Plan A multidisciplinary team of education and health professionals develop this 0 School District is required to provide services needed in IEP Transportation special equipment and supportive or corrective therapies 0 FAPE Free and Appropriate Public Education 0 3 years old to 21 years old Early intervention lt3 is allowed but not mandated Three Disability Groupings 1 Learning Ability Impaired 0 Intellectual limitation emotionalbehavioral disorder or other neurological dysfunction 2 Communication Abilities Impaired 0 Vision or hearing impairments speech disorders 3 Physical Impairment Special Education 0 Special education students are more than twice as likely as peers to drop out of high school half as likely to participate in postsecondary ed 0 More than half of youth identified with mental health needs will drop out of school 0 What legislation led to and impacted Special Education as we know it today Transition 0 Transition planning is required for all students with disabilities 0 Must be started at 14 full plan at 16 Usually includes a vocational rehab counselor to ensure that work or higher education is part of the plan The decision for the vast majority of Americans is not whether to work but what kind of work to do 0 PWDs Often Have I Less work experience out of high school I When Work Requires Training More resources available and rights in place but PWDs find that elementary or high school provides a very different playing for PWDs RCPD on Campus Resource Center for People with Disabilities 0 Assertiveness Social Presence and Awareness of Rights act as Critical Resources 0 Importance of Work Work generates sociopolitical and economic power Work helps define who we are Work in uences who we spend time with and build relationships with Work Options for PWDs 0 Options are often reduced but far from being nonexistent 0 As with PWODs difficulty navigating the multiple options is more often the concern than finding any at all 0 A lack of work experience often hurts career planning for PWDs Vocational Rehabilitation 0 Vocational rehabilitation provides employment services for PWDs and is often involved in the student IEPs I Includes assessment counseling information job search and placement assistance etc 0 Vocational choice can be a sticky point 0 VR as part of disability rights movement has become much more personcentered Work Models 0 Sheltered Workshops to Supported Employment I Benefits of SE Work Options Expanded More accurate predictor than simulation or other setting Vocational tests are poor at predicting work success Exposes employers to PWDs and their abilities Sheltering vs Accommodating 0 When is Accommodation Reasonable 0 What is an undue hardship 0 Improving Work Opportunities gt Legislation that 0 Prohibits discrimination in hiring retention and promotion 0 Requires reasonable accommodation 0 Reduction of work disincentives gt Technological innovation gt Improved VR services gt Independent Living Centers gt Increased focus on transition What Impact Did WIOA Have on Education Training and Employment Vocational Rehabilitation Universal Design in School and Work EVVVV 0 Design with emphasis on exible goals methods materials assessments activities and services that meet the needs of diverse job seekers 0 The best practices invariability serve the most customers Assistive Technology in School and Work 0 Any item piece of equipment or product system whether acquired commercially modified or customized that is used to increase maintain or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities Whereas universal design alters the environment and information assistive technology allows individuals to adjust to an unaltered environment or information source and provides access to materials and services to people with disabilities that would not otherwise be accessible Work Disincentives F gt Work disincentives grew largely out of the dated belief that people with significant disabilities did not have employable abilities Therefore working in the past resulted in a lost of welfare payments and medicaid even if the job paid less Disincentives have been reduced significantly since the late 1990s Still benefits planning should accompany career planning for persons on SSI or SSDI


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