HIST1020: Renaissance and Ming Dynasty
HIST1020: Renaissance and Ming Dynasty HIST 1020
Popular in World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Aaron P Althouse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
HIST1020 World Civilizations c 1000 1800 Althouse Wednesday 923 15 THE RENAISSANCE Began in Western Europe presentday quotItalyquot Renaissance means quotrebirt quot Around 1300s1500s foundation began in 1300s and the art came around 1400s Italians developed interest in antiquity classical Greece and Rome were important They took old traditions and applied it to their current situation they even looked towards tradition from other countries for inspiration 1500s conquest and exploration were huge 18001900s focused on modernized ideas throughout the entire world as Renaissance ideas spread to Asia and the Americas Background 39 Italy is unstable in 1300s due to things such as the Plague confusion with Popes in France and competition among various citystates 39 citystates small kingdoms they had internal political con ict at this time FOHOWed a System baSGd 011 a republic a system of government in which decisions are made through discussion and debate Believed in civic duties and what was good for the common man 39 A rising merchant class in Italy wants to be more prepared with education 39 Educational system focus on needs of people over the needs of the church and felt that scholasticism was too rigid 39 Scholasticism up to 1300 focused on memorization and not interpretation the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle was looked to for all answers his ideas were memorized without question Aristotle 3 84322 BCE Ancient Greek philosopher who quotheld all the answersquot Repumw SyStem bum On discussion and debate of ideasopinions 39 Inspiration for this was Ancient Greece and Rome 110 an ItalY a very important city state PthafCh Francesco Parana from Florence Italy an important citystate and lived in France poet who believed one must experience life 39 To prepare young minds for leadership roles he implemented humanism to inspire a less rigid form of education he decided there were 5 subjects called humanistic studies needed to become a leader POBtI39Ya grammar rhetoric moral philosophy and history this served as a form of general education at the time 39 Historical Discontinuity Petrarch39s theory the classical era was good and the dark ages 5001300 were terrible but now the Renaissance will be great again FlorCntine Academy 1400 specialized in the study of Greek language to understand Classical Greek writing and focused heavily on Plato and artistic activity 1490 High Renaissance peaked Plato 420s348 BCE aligned with Christianity39s ideals 39 Leonardo da Vinci 14521519 painted the Mona Lisa her eyes told her story nicknamed Renaissance Man because he was viewed as a quotjack of all tradesquot as he worked as an artist mechanic etc mainly in Florence 39 Michelangelo 14751564 sculpted David in stone and painted the Sistine Chapel in Rome with 343 religious lifesize figures stressed the importance of world pursuits 39 Niccolo Machiavelli 14691527 wrote The Prince 1513 while in exile about the republic in Italy being destroyed by the French the independence of the citystate must be protected at all cost and the ruthless Prince stated quotit is better to be respected than likedquot 39 Renaissance art moved away from art depicting humans wanting to go to heaven and expresses the plight of people while on earth Friday 92515 MING DYNASTY CHINA 1368 1644 Mongols rule China 12791368 until the Ming Dynasty takes over 39 Secret societies were rebellious groups and the Red Turbans brought about the demise of the Mongols and the uprising of the Ming Dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang founder of Ming Dynasty known as the Hongwu Emperor 39 He was the first commoner to be emperor of China after 1000 years 39 He was impoverished and moved a lot while young to avoid taxes and rent collection 39 A few of his brothers were sold into slavery 39 Orphaned at 16 due to ooding and famine could not even afford to bury his parents 39 Joined a Buddhist monastery and begged for money until Mongols burned it down 39 1352 joined the Red Turbans married the leader39s daughter and began to take over parts of China through his rebel group he was the most powerful leader taking over 39 Established the Ming Dynasty this is the last dynasty to be ruled by a native Chinese 39 Eased pressure on the poor but demanded respect from everyone Believed people should always obey their superiors hierarchy of authority 39 Tax policies were aimed towards helping the poor by increasing taxes on the rich 39 China was the center of trade but they did not export trade representatives had to travel to China for goods 39 Executed about 100000 people due to paranoia believed the entire world was plotting against him 39 Hated the mandarins and purged them at least twice Mandarlmi Confucian scholarsbureaucrats 39 Government officials who had been a part of Chinese system for hundreds of years 39 Hongwu did not trust them so he purged their group due to paranoia Yongle Emperor ruled 140524 39 Reversed all of Hongwu39s policies 39 Pushes China to oceanic exploration and travel 39 Sent out 7 major eets 14051430 sponsored by the government Zhfing He Muslim navigator of trade eets died in 1433 Spice trade was sent to India salt and pepper were in high demand Arabian Peninsula East Africa they beat the Portuguese here Covered around 12000 miles Covered ports all throughout the Indian Ocean including the Swahili Coast The largest eet had 300 junks and most ships were more than 400 feet long bigger than a football field with 30000 men aboard each they traveled for 2 years average per voyage St Maria that Columbus sailed was only 85 feet long 39 Goals of sending out these eets Show Ming power throughout the world the Mongols made the Chinese feel inferior for so long that they wanted to show their new power over the Mongols Show Mongol defeat in China Bring baCk GXOtiC gOOdS from foreign places to make citizens happy with their government brought a giraffe from India who was thought to have divine qualities and Turkeys from America were a luxury pet By 1500 broad patterns can be seen to show Chinese relationships 39 Interaction with foreigners Portuguese arrive by sea Portuguese goals in China 39 They want to trade to gain wealth 39 Catholic Portuguese want to bring Christianity to the Chinese Late 1500s Chinese want silver but the Spanish have control of Mexico and Peru where it is a common good the Portuguese carry silver from Mexico and Peru to the Philippines and then to China and Japan 39 Catholicism arrives in China but does not threaten the current religion Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 Chin31 s Catholic Centuries 16001800 Catholic missionaries had no competition from Muslims or Protestants Jesuit Order most wellknown leader of Jesuits in China was Matteo Ricci