Chapter2LectureOutline.pdf HDFS 225
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 225 at Michigan State University taught by Sherrell Hicklen House in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in the family in HDFS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 2 Lecture Outline I Theory Theory Set of interrelated statements that provide an explanation for a class of events 0 Help us make sense of our experiences 0 Allows us to organize our observations 0 Inspires research that is used to verify disprove or modify a theory II Psychoanalytic Theories Psychoanalytic Theory personality is fashioned progressively as the individual passes thorough various stages 0 Con icts unique to each stage Sigmund Freud Erik Erickson III Freud Psychosexual Stages of Development Stressed the role in our behavior of unconscious motivation O Stemmed from impulses buried below the level of awareness 0 Id ego superego Psychosexual stages 0 Oral anal phallic latency genital Fixation tendency to stay at a particular stage IV Erik Erikson Psychosocial Stages of Development Epigenetic principle anything that grows has a ground plan Each stage poses an unique developmental task and a crisis or opportunity which individuals must resolve Personality development takes place throughout the entire life span Trust vs mistrust The Psychosocial stages of development Autonomy vs shame and doubt Initiative vs guilt Industry vs inferiority Identity cs Identity confusion Intimacy vs isolation Generativity vs stagnation Integrity vs despair Despair vs hope and faith OOOOOOOO V Behavioral Theory also called Learning Theory Concerned with the observable behavior people what they actually do and say 0 Responses behavior 0 Stimuli environment VI Classical Conditioning Process of stimulus substitution in which a new previously neutral stimulus is substituted for the stimulus that naturally elicits a response Based on the work of Ivan Pavlov VII Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which the consequences of a behavior alter the strength of that behavior In uenced by the work of John Watson and BF Skinner VIII Behavior Modification Pathological behavior is acquired through leaning The way to eliminate an unwanted behavior is to stop reinforcing it IX Humanistic Theory Maslow s Hierarchy of needs psychological needs are air water sex sleep food Safety and security love and belonging self esteem and self accusation X Cognitive Theory Cognition acts or processes of knowing Cognitive theory how we go about representing organizing treating and transforming information as we devise our behavior Cognitive Theorists 0 Jean Piaget 0 Albert Bandura XI Cognitive Theory Piaget Cognitive Stages of Development 0 Sequential periods in the growth or maturing of an individual s ability to think to gain knowledge of one s self and the environment 0 Development as adaptation to meet environmental demands Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development 0 Sensorimotor stage birth to 2 years 0 Preoperational stage 27 years 0 Concrete operation 711 years 0 Formal operations 11 years to older XII Piaget Adaptation Schemas cognitive structures constructed to deal with the environment Infants adapt to the world in two ways 0 Assimilation taking in new info and making it fit with the existing schema of the world 0 Accommodation changing one s schema to make it match the reality of the world Equilibrium balance between the processes of assimilation and accommodation XIII Cognitive Theory Bandura Cognitive learning 0 Places heavy reliance on information processing I People abstract and integrate information that they encounter in the course of their social experiences Cognitive learning is refereed to as observational leaning social learning and social modeling Children manufacture their own development as they interact with the environment XIV Sociocultural Theory Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural theory thinking reasoning and remembering are facilitated through language and anchored in the child s interpersonal relationships 0 Learning from group activities and everyone else XV Ecological Theory Proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner Centers on the relationship between the developing and individual and the changing environment Focuses on the relationship between the person and the environment XVI Nature vs Nurture Heredity vs Environment Debate continues over which factor is responsible for a given trait New Question How so hereditary and environmental factors work together to produce a behavior XVII Behavioral Genetics Focuses on individual differences and seeks answers to Why individuals exhibit different behaviors Jerome Kagan timidity studies The Minnesota Twin Project Polygenic inheritance XVIII Evolutionary Adaptation Theory Ethologists contend that human babies are biologically Wired With releasing stimuli that elicit care from adults