Chapter3LectureOutline.pdf HDFS 225
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 225 at Michigan State University taught by Sherrell Hicklen House in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in the family in HDFS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 3 Outline Reproduction Process by which organisms create more organisms of own kind Male and female gametes also know as sex cells 0 Sperm and ovum egg or oocyte fuse to create a zygote Male Reproductive System Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones Supporting structures seminal vesicles and prostate gland Penis external reproductive organs Female Reproductive System Ovaries produce ova Ovum is released approximately every 28 days Ovum moves through the fallopian tubes where it may be fertilized by sperm Uterus prepares itself for conception Unfertilized ovum shed expelled through cervix and vagina How and When Fertilization Occurs Menstrual cycle a mature ovum is produced every 28 days Ovulation an ovum reaches maturity and passes into one of the fallopian tubes Fertilization fusion of sperm and ovum Multiple conception can occur identical or fraternal twins Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technology Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technology ART 0 Invitro fertilization IVF O Gamete intrafallopian transfer GIFT O Zygote intrafallopian transfer ZIFT O Intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI O Sperm sorting Advanced technology allows women to choose childbearing after menopause Cloning Cloning a form of asexual reproduction that creates an embryo by somatic cell nuclear transfer Two types reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning Many legal and ethical issues are involved VII Birth Control Methods Contraception prevention of a pregnancy 0 Condoms injectable contraceptives and oral contraceptives birth control Abstinence Abortion prolife prochoice VIII Heredity and Genetics Heredity our biological inheritance Genetics the scientific study of biological inheritance IX Determination of Embryo s Sex 46 chromosomes 23 pairs 22 are similar in shape and size in both women and men autosomes 23rd pair sex chromosomes determine baby s sex X Principles of Genetics Greoger Johann Mendel Dominant and recessive characteristics 0 Allele dominant and recessive characteristics 0 Homozygous characteristic both alleles from the parents are the same 0 Heterozygous characteristic both alleles are different XI Genotypes and Phenotypes Genotype actual genetic makeup of an organism Phenotype observable characteristics of an organism hair eyes skin color XII Prenatal Development Germinal Period Germinal period from conception to end of second week Characterized by growth of zygote and establishment of linkage between zygote and support system of mother XIII Prenatal Development Embryonic Period From end of second week to end of eighth week Rapid growth Establishment of a placental relationship with mother Early structural appearance of all chief organs Development of recognizable human body Development of the body 0 Cephalocaudal development that proceeds from the head to the feet 0 Proximodistal develop that proceeds outward from the central axis of the body toward the extremities Critical period first trimester XIV Prenatal Development Fetal Period Begins with the end of the eighth week and ends with birth Characteristics organism called a fetus Major organ systems continue to develop and assume their specialized functions XV Timing of Birth Determined by the biochemical changes in the mother fetus and placenta The interaction of these hormones triggers the birth process XVI Maternal Medications Account for 13 of birth defects Common medications of concern Barbiturates Antihistamines Systemic steroids Accutane OOOO XVII Maternal Infectious Diseases Rubella and other agents Chlamydia HPV Trichomoniasis Syphilis Genital herpes Gonorrhea HIVAids XVIII Maternal Noninfectious Conditions Diabetes Major drugs and chemical teratogens 0 Smoking alcohol weed coke other hard drugs 000 0 Oral contraceptives Caffeine Environmental toxins Workplace toxins Maternal stress and age
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