Chapter5LectureOutline.pdf HDFS 225
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 225 at Michigan State University taught by Sherrell Hicklen House in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in the family in HDFS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 5 Outline 1 Cognitive Development Cognition process of learning 0 Encompasses sensation perception imagery retention 0 Mental activity enables us to make something out of our perceptions I Relates a new event to other events or objects in our experience 11 Learning A Definition Three criteria 0 There is some change in behavior 0 The change must be relatively stable 0 The chance must results from experience Fundamental human process 111 How Soon do Infants Start Learning Learning in the womb in the last trimester 0 Anthony DeCasper I Fetuses can discriminate against low pitched notes that are within the realm of normal human speech I Fetuses can sense their mother s emotions by differentiating amongst different speech patterns 0 Infants are born with innate perception to music I Some believe language develops from this musical knowledge IV Newborn Learning Newborn leaning learning can occur among 2 to 5 day old full term infants Autobiographical memory memory of events that happened to oneself Freud proposed infantile or childhood amnesia Age 3 marks a turning point in memory Different cognitive perspectives for childhood amnesia 0 Visual encoded memories are pushed out once language is learned 0 Piaget believed infants were incapable of symbolically representing the world Sociocultural O Autobiographical memory is developed through interactions with others who share the memory 0 Memory is socially constructed V Bruner on Modes of Cognitive Representation We know or learn something in 3 ways 0 Enactive representation children represent the world through their motor skills 0 Ikonic representation children use mental images or pictures that are closely linked to perceptions O Symbolic representation children learn through language communication VI Continuity in Cognitive Development from Infancy Two components of attention seem most indicative 0 intelligence in youngsters O Decrement of attention losing interest in watching an object or even that is unchanging 0 Recovery of attention regaining interest when something new happens VII The Functional Importance of Language Language structured system of sound patterns with socially standardized meanings Two contributions 0 Communication process by which people transmit info ideas attitudes and emotions to one another 0 Facilitation of though and other cognitive processes VIII Thought Shapes Language Thought takes place independently of language Children approach the task of word leaning with preexisting cognitive biases that lead them to prefer some possible meanings over others Some aspects of linguistic development appear to be linked to preexisting level of conceptual development Words are only necessary to convey thought to others IX Language Shapes Thought Language develops with at the same time as or even prior to thought Conceptualization grouping perceptions into classes or categories based on certain similarities X Nativist Theories Noam Chomsky The language acquisition device LAD human beings possess an inborn language generating mechanism Human beings begin life With the underpinnings of later speech perception and comprehension XI Nativist Theory Chomsky s Theory of Language Development Humans are preWired by their brain circuitry for language use Human brain Wired to sort through incoming frequencies and sounds categorized as phonemes smallest units of language All languages possess 0 Surface structure the words they use 0 Deep structure their composition nouns and verbs XII Arguments for Nativist Theories Most children acquire language With little difficulty Adult speech is inconsistent garbled and sloppy Children s speech is not a mechanical playback of adult speech XIII Learning and Interactionist Theories Learning is acquired through parentinfant interaction Caregiver speech 0 Baby talk 0 Differs in everyday speech in its simplified vocabulary higher pitched exaggerated short simple sentences smaller words and high proportion of questions and imperatives Motherese or Parentese 0 A simplified redundant and highly grammatical sort of language 0 Used once infants being responding With adult speech 0 Pitch of the caregiver s voice is correlated With the child s age XIV Communication Processes Nonverbal communication or body language is determined by culture 0 Physical movements 0 Gaze 0 Points 0 Paralanguage the stress pitch and volume of vocalization by Which we communication expressive meaning 0 Language reception XV The Sequence of Language Development From vocalization in babbling Babbling Receptive vocabulary an understanding of spoken words before they are able to express themselves Holophrases single words children use to convey different meanings Overextension overgeneralization Twoword sentence Telegraphic speech XVI Bilingualism Critical period of language acquisition prior to onset of puberty Best time to learn a new language is early in life XVII Significance of Language Development Children vary in their timing Birth order may affect the onset of language Delayed speech can indicate hearing impairment Delayed speech can lead to later social isolation
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