RHS100 Reading - Chapter 2
RHS100 Reading - Chapter 2 100
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This 5 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Lenna Neff on Thursday September 25, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Bethanne Woodhouse in 2014. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Disability Culture in Education and Teacher Studies at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/14
RHS 100 CHAPTER 1 X DEFINITIONS OF DISABILITY Disabilities can happen to anyone at anytime Those visibly disabled are a constant remind to those who are not as to how fragile life is So it actually normal Normal is often defined as the absence of deviance illness or disability making normal positive and disabled negative Normalcy depends on 3 elements The characteristics to be judged The environment in which the characteristics appear The individuals who are making the judgment Eugenics the study of heredity improvements of the human race by controlled selective breeding and elimination of those with disabilities Sir Frances Dalton Karl Pearson and Sir Ronald Fisher Darwin believed that through his theory of survival of the fittest the human with disability traits would eventually be bred out and disappear This works for plants but not humans Disability scholars determined that NORMAL should not be confused with IDEAL When a majority of a group are disabled the norm is the disabled people an the minority are non disabled people Martha s Vineyard and D deafness o Universal accommodations o Lack of discrimination and prejudice against deaf people which was everyone Determination of normalcy 1 Value judgments that may mistakenly interfere 2 The environment in which the person functions 3 Who is making the determination and what their motivations are normal have the defining power Purpose of the assessment The diagnostic tools instruments and classification system used 91 What is considered normal today may not be considered normal tomorrow especially intellectual mental emotional disabilities DSM IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition Classification system used to diagnose psychosis personality disorders mental retardation and other mental illnesses Does not take into account the culture religious or spiritual background Reasons for assessment of normalcy Considerations of convenience cost and comfort of Managed care reforms Cost containment efforts Financial risk VVVV Importance of Assessment Categorization of disability Individual s adjustment to the disability Society39s reaction CATEGORIZING DISABILITIES Why it is necessary to categorize disabilities To provide benefits and services to those who need them by government agencies who must design some sort of counting and data collection to estimate the resources necessary to serve the needs and establish policy I Determination eligibility for services and benefits I Agencies from which they are allowed to receive services I Settings in which they live Categorization diagnosis and definition are important Without a diagnosis a third party payers or government agencies provide services or benefits Categorization of the disability affects the self identity labels affect effectiveness of treatment PHYSICAL DISABILITIES Visual Impairments 18 million Total blindness from birth gradual loss muscle disorders crossed eyes loss of vision or tunnel vision Must be severe enough to limit daily functioning Can be genetic or caused at birth Occurs in elderly Can occur from diseases Accidental Medical advancements Special schools Technology Preferential treatment Governmental assistance Vocational Rehabilitation WHEN the impairment occurs is important Hearing Impairments 1 million Close caption television Sign language Most prevalent form of disability 28 million people or 11 of population Causes unknown congenital or acquired Education Surgery Technology WHEN the impairment occurs is important Dual Sensory Loss Severe communication deficits Not common Eradication of childhood infections such as meningitis or scarlet fever Usher syndrome 50 genetic condition characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa total deafness by middle age WHEN the impairment occurs is important Mobility Impairments Spina bifida cerebral palsy spinal cord injuries paraplegia quadriplegia muscular dystrophy amputations disease or accidental Hereditary injury or infection 80 of spinal cord injuries are males Health Disorders Diabetes seizures MS hemophilia sickle cell anemia AIDS cystic fibrosis Limit functioning require care treatment and maintenance May be invisible to the person Intellectual Disabilities Mental retardation is more than 7 times as prevalent as blindness or deafness and 10 times as prevalent as physical disabilities Mental retardation down syndrome autism Government funding Special education Community services Not institutionalized anymore and remain at home Significantly subnormal intellectual functioning measured by IQs 6 million people 3 population Causes Maternal infection Congenital rubella Fetal alcohol Birth trauma Postnatal infections encephalitis metabolic Cognitive Disabilities Impaired perception memory information processing reasoning sensory discrimination attention Learning disabilities and traumatic brain injuries Usually discovered in school by teachers Not outgrown Caused by neurological or genetic causes Damage to central nervous system Anoxia Abnormal fetal position Infections Traumatic brain injuries Psychiatric Disabilities Mental illness Schizophrenia Delusional disorders Major depression Anxietypanic disorders Autism Chemical and substance abuse self imposed ADA defines disabilities as 1 Presence of a physical cognitive intellectual psychiatric condition 2 Pervasive impairment in a social and occupational functioning 3 Individuals with these impairments are the target of prejudice discrimination stigma reduced opportunities Facial disfigurement Height short is okay for women but not for men Obesity okay for men but not women Glasses can be corrected There Are More Disabilities Than Ever Before 45 million No disability definition Challenges in counting disabilities Surveys are expensive some are not reported due to stigma some do not realize they are disabled Costs have doubled 23 billion a year Stats VVVVVV V Advances in neonatal medicine cause babies to survive but may have lifelong disabilities such as cerebral palsy mental retardation and spina bifida Advances in emergency medicine and trauma care save lives but increase disabilities Aging of the population People with disabilities live longer 512 million Americans have some level of disability18 of population 325 million have a severe disability 12 of population 4 million children ages 614 11 of population 72 of elders over 80 highest percentage 20 females and 17 of males 26 million have speech difficulties 26 million veterans
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