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Chapter One: The Past, Present, and Future of Neuroscience

by: Victoria Gonzalez

Chapter One: The Past, Present, and Future of Neuroscience NEUROSC 3000 - 020

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Neuroscience > NEUROSC 3000 - 020 > Chapter One The Past Present and Future of Neuroscience
Victoria Gonzalez
GPA 3.2
Introduction to Neuroscience
Robert Boyd

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About this Document

These notes incorporate lectures, the professor's powerpoints, and chapter 1 of the textbook "Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain".
Introduction to Neuroscience
Robert Boyd
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Gonzalez on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NEUROSC 3000 - 020 at Ohio State University taught by Robert Boyd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Neuroscience in Neuroscience at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 1 The Science of Nutrition Victoria Gonzalez 1 Nutrition interactions between food and living organisms 2 Poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for many chronic diseases a About 23 of all death is related to diet issues i Heart diseases 24 ii Cancer 23 b Many chronic diseases are preventable i Adequate nutrient intake ii Avoiding overnutritionobesity iii Physical activity 3 Nutrients substances in food used for normal growth reproduction and maintenance of health a Classes of nutrients i Carbohydrates Lipids fats and oils iii Proteins iv Vitamins v Minerals vi Water b Macronutrients needed in large amounts gram quantities i Water needed in the largest amount ii Carbohydrates iii Lipids iv Proteins c Micronutrients needed in small amounts milligram i Vitamins ii Minerals d Nutrients needed but not produced in the body i They provide energy measured in the form of calories ii Provide building blocks for growth iii Help regulate and maintain body processes e Essential nutrient must meet these guidelines i Has a speci c biological function ii Removing it from diet declines the function iii Adding it to diet restores the function 4 Carbohydrates CHO usually disaccharides a Composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen b Simple and complex carbohydrates c Fiber indigestible carbs digest slowly keeps from being hungry i No calories or energy d Provide major source of fuel for the body i Energy yielding 4 kcalgram of carbohydrate e Basic unit glucose 5 Lipids fats and oils made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen a Fatty acid basic unit of lipids b Saturated fat covered with hydrogen bonds no double bonds i Animal products ii Solid at room temperature iii Bad for health raises blood cholesterol c Unsaturated fat has one double bond i Oils at room temperature ii Come from plants iii Better for health d Trans fats i Cis fats are transformed into trans fats to preserve foods ii Bad for health causes chronic health conditions e Triglyceride major form of lipid in food and body i Made up of one glycerol and three fatty acid chains f Energy yielding 9 kcalgram 6 Proteins made of carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen a Amino acid basic unit of proteins i 9 essential amino acids ii 11 nonessential amino acids b Make up bones muscles and tissues c Energy yielding 4 kcalgram 7 Water macronutrient required in the largest quantity 913 cups a day a Makes up most of our body b Acts as i Solvent ii Lubricant iii Medium for transport iv Temperature regulator sweat c Sources of water i lntake in beverages and foods ii Made as byproducts of metabolism d Yields no calories no energy 8 Vitamins composed of various elements a Enable chemical reactions b Needed in tiny milligram amounts c Yield no energy d Water soluble vitamins C and B complex i More easily excreted from the body ii Easily destroyed by cooking e Fat soluble vitamins A D E and K i Kept in the body ii Greater risk for toxicity 9 Minerals inorganic substances no carbon 10 11 12 13 14 15 a b Tth 0390 0390 Needed in small amounts milligram Major minerals needed in greater than 100 mgday i Sodium potassium chloride calcium phosphorous Trace minerals needed in less than 100 mgday i lron zinc copper selenium What we intake most sodium processed foods What we should intake most potassium Yield no energy Other components Physiologically active compounds bene cial but not essential i Phytochemicals plant components ii Zoochemicals in animal products Alcohol Not an essential nutrient Rich source of calories i Energy yielding 7 kcalgram Calorie measurement of energy The amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius bomb calorimetry Food is measured in kilocalories kcal i Calorie on nutrition label kcal Transformation of calories to energy for cells ATP is the cells energy currency We use energy for i Building new compounds Muscle movement iii Nerve transmissions iv lon balance The North American diet Good news i 50 of kcals come from carbohydrates ii 33 of kcals come from fat iii 16 of kcals come from proteins Bad news i 50 of carbohydrates are from simple sugars re ned and added sugars ii 65 of far is from animal sources Nutritional Health Status Optimal nutrition body tissues have enough nutrients to support normal function and build and maintain surplus Undernutrition intake does not meet needs i Reduced biochemical functions ii Clinical symptoms appear c Overnutrition nutrient intake exceeds needs i Supplement overuse 1 Obesity d Sign vs symptom i Sign something you can see pale complexion ii Symptoms you cannot see fatigue poor temperature regulation 16 Iron de ciency is the most common nutrient de ciency in the world a Desirable nutrition adequate liver iron stores and iron in blood b Undernutrition not enough iron in blood that helps carry oxygen to tissues i Fatigue poor temperature regulation pale complexion c Overnutrition excess iron in liver stores leads to liver damage i Severe vomiting and death 17 Nutritional assessments a Background i Medical history past diseases and surgeries medication etc ii Family medical history b Nutritional i Anthropometric assessment height weight arm muscle circumference skinfold thickness ii Biochemical laboratory assessment compounds in blood and urine iii Clinical assessment physical examination of skin eyes tongue iv Dietary assessment usual food intake food allergies supplements used v Environmental assessment education economic background housing condition 18 Problems with nutritional assessment a Many signs and symptoms of de ciency are not speci c i Diarrhea skin conditions fatigue b Many signs and symptoms take a long time to develop i Osteoporosis develops later in life after the calcium de ciency 19 Genetics and chronic diseases a Genetics and nutrition are known to affect our risk of several chronic diseases 20 21 22 i Cardiovascular disease hypertension obesity diabetes cancer osteoporosis DNA directs an individual s use of nutrients Heredity is not necessarily destiny i Diet and lifestyle impact genetics Genogram medical family tree that can help trace genetic risk of diseases Nutrition research Use scienti c research starts with an observation or ques on Experiments i Laboratory animal studies ii Human experiments 1 Casecontrol study observe people with and people without disease 2 Double blind intervention study blind the researcher and the people in experiment to reduce bias Evaluating nutrition claims products and advice Be suspicious if i A quick x is promised ii Only advantages are discussed iii New or secret breakthrough iv A disease is claimed to be cured v Testimonials show dramatic results Buying nutritionrelated products DSHEA 1994 dietary supplement health education act I Supplements are regulated by DSHEA ii Classi es vitamins minerals amino acids and herbal supplements as quotfoodsquot and not quotdrugsquot iii Redirects FDA oversight of dietary supplements iv Allows vague claims on labels of how nutrient affects a structure function 1 Product will say it will help strengthen bones will not say it will cure osteoporosis Disease related claims need FDA approval Manufacturers do not need to prove effectiveness or safety before marketing Quality can be veri ed by independent labs ingredients and contaminants are checked i Testing by independent labs does not guarantee that products are safe or effective Latest FDA ruling cGMP current good manufacturing practices i Ensures that dietary supplements 1 Are produced in a quality manner 23 24 goom 0390 2 Do not contain contaminants not adulterated 3 Are accurately labeled ii If someone takes a supplement and feels requirements are not met they can call FDA How do we get vitamins and minerals Healthy diet ber phytochemicals fatty acids Forti ed foods milk with added vitamin D Use multivitaminmineral supplement if diet is poor no iron Take individual supplements only if de cient calcium iron Getting nutrition related advice Who is quali ed Registered dietitians RD MS of PhD in nutrition


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