Notes Week 1
Notes Week 1 Anthrop 3301
Popular in Modern Human Physical Variation
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Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthrop 3301 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Douglas Crews in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Modern Human Physical Variation in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
9193 Epigeneticsstuff that affects genes other than genes like environmental changes to genes 0 Stable miRNA species circulate in the blood Diseaserelated variations serum and plasma miRNA expression 0 Possible noninvasive biomarkers for disease early detection prognosis therapy aberrant mRNA cancer and shit Polygenetictrait determined by more than one gene has nothing to do with environment 0 Few strictly polygenetic traitslike HLA 0 Most multifactorialheight others are height weight skin color body habitus 0 body habitusdiseasepromoting aspects of soma Postulaterule accepted without proof Theoryexplanation of empirical observations Lawsequence of events in nature observed to occur with unvarying uniformity under the same conditions Genomeall genes in an individual population or species Proteomeal the proteins in a cell individual 0 23000 genes and 30000 proteins RNA interferenceRNAimiRNA bits that bind to mRNA that increase or decrease expressionvirusestransposons defensesdirect gene expression during development microbiomebacterial population within the body that outnumbers body cells 10 to 1 quotOmicsquot revolutionphrase coined for elds of biology using the suf x quotomicsquottranscriptomics metabolomics pharmacogenomics omics revolution because we used to do reductionist biology nd the gene for that disease to systems biology nd the multifaceted causes for that disease newbornintestine and colon are bacteria free but in birth and breastfeeding they accumulate microbial colonizers You are the world to 150 x more microbial than human genes microbes support nutrition metabolism and immunity intestine is largest immune organ in humans its development is microbiomedependent 0 Latest treatment for Crohn39s In ammatory Bowel Syndrome Diabetesfecal transplant Chromatin Modi cation 0 DNA methylationmethyl group added to a cytosine or adenine aids DNA in quotrememberingquot inheritable genomic imprinting suppresses DNA expressionsuppresses oncogenegs o Histone acetylationDNA is coiled around histones and can39t be read if the DNA is coiled too tightly so histone acetylation removes a positive charge on histones and therefore decreases histone interaction with negative shaped DNA phosphatesmore relaxed structure greater levels of gene transcription 0 Ubiquitinsmall regulatory antioxidant protein ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic organisms directs protein recycling tags proteins and directs them to proteasome which would degrade and recycle and mobilizes proteins Methylationmother39s diet linked to obesity in offspring epigenetic methylation bloclts Pomc gene expression which promotes satiety Genes units of heredity that produce phenotypic traits Linear arrays of 4 DNA bases ATGC 0 template for RNA 0 code sequence of amino acids in proteins sets of 3 bases constitute a codon 0 ex stop start Genes o nontemplate strand of codons makes a gene called a sense 0 complement is template strand antisense o transcription complement strand template for premRNA PremRNA same as sense strandexons and introns PremRNA is processed into mature mRNAintrons excised Mature mRNA goes to ribosomes translated to protein 0 exons coding regions within a gene o intron noncoding intervening regions 0 introns clipped out of premRNA at spliceosomes Spliceosomes RNA and proteins 0 genetic code is redundant 1 triplicate codes for amino acid minor mutations like changing the rst or second letter in the triplicate can have dramatic effects can make a nonstop or stop codon at a bad place 0 rate at which a protein is made may be determined by least frequent tRNAanticodon complimentary selective use of speci c RNAs interference by miRNAs and siRNAs epigenetic markers 0 changing the last codon seldom changes the amino acid changing the lst or 2nd generally does 0 all proteincoding sequences begin with Met codon AUG sole start codon 0 there are 3 stop codons UAA UAG UGA Mendelian Traits o Mendelian traits are simple traits with limited environmental or cultural in uences it39s a genesonly trait that either you39ve got one or the other of 2 phenotypes qualitative not quantitative traits 0 there are 3 genotypes 0 only 2 alleles 0 may be a SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism 0 Always have dominant and recessive allele relationships 0 No heritability or norm of reaction 0 Show penetrance the phenotype re ects the genotype 0 Mendelian genetics involves pq1 basis of all population genetics pfrequency of wildtype allelesmost frequent usually the dominant qfrequency of a mutant alleleless frequent usually recessive Evolution simplistic de nition change in allele frequency from generation to generation BUT WAIT THERE39S MORE 0 selective pressures and serendipitous events serendipitous events things like earthquakes volcanoes or anything that isn39t slow natural selection 0 dependent on population dynamics which depend on the forces of evolution which depend on the environment which is always changing a moving target and evolution throws away any arrows that don39t hit the target Microevolution slow changes in alleles and phenotypes over geological time 0 Gene pool all alleles available in populations changes slowly unless outside force Macroevolution large changes in phylogenetic group in short geologic time 0 New species and higher groups organelle engulfment hybridization adaptive radiation mass extinctions arti cial selection Punctuated Equilibrium Red Queen Hypothesis or Treadmill Evolution 0 quotthe Red Queen had to run faster and faster in order to keep where she wasquotAlice in Wonderland 0 population must constantly evolve just to maintain tness 0 Predatorprey relationships wolves catch the slow rabbits rabbits outrun slow wolves they39re both constantly becoming faster 0 Hostparasite 0 Targeted organismbiocides o Evolutionary Arms Race Darwin39s Gradualism o slownot rapidcannot explain the following chromosome doubling FernAdder39s tongue shrimp8692 jacllt jumper ant2 o no way to differentiate in the fossil record 0 Support for Darwinian Evolution 0 Fossils divergence through time and ancestral forms 0 geography allopatric speciation geographically separated populations and reproductive barriers homology same organs or structures in different organisms although there39s a variety of form and functions there39s a suggestion of a shared ancestor phylogeny grouping species by shared traits systematics using morphological features to construct phylogenies today many shared DNA sequences are what differentiate species rather than just appearances since we now have the technology YOU CAN TRACK THE LIKELY PATH OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA throughout time across the world 0 Why do we classify all of this shit 0 0 We like to order the complex universe makes for quicker thoughtorder makes life easier simplify categories to determine differences create an ordered system All science is classi cation We all classify everything like those people who classi ed all of the kinds of beer and their origins and the way they39re made and their taste and just everything Linnaeus The Father or Scienti c Classi cation even though Dr Crews didn39t want to call him that 0 wanted to show the relationship between God and angels all the way down to lower organisms devised binomial nomenclature systematics science of reassigning ancestordescendant relationships Taxonomy species description Classi cation places related species together Nomenclature names species 0 subspecies geographic populations genetically distinguishable from other populations of the species a quotBiological Racequot don39t have this in humans because our DNA is not differentiated enough 0 Troglodytes nocturnal humanlike animals that lived underground and don39t actually exist but Linny thought they did